Ethio-Hebrew Psalms (BL Add. 19342)   2 comments

While looking lately at the records for some Judeo-Persian manuscripts in Margoliouth’s Catalogue of the Hebrew and Samaritan Manuscripts in the British Museum, I stumbled across the record for BL Add. 19342 (№ 158 in the catalog, p. 119), a manuscript with parts of the Psalter in Hebrew, but written in Gǝʿǝz script (Fidäl), something we can call Ethio-Hebrew on the pattern of the descriptors Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, etc. (We could also call Garšūnī Syro-Arabic, but custom has deemed otherwise.) Until this, I had never encountered this particular phenomenon, but as Margoliouth notes, Wright had previously described the manuscript as part of the Ethiopic collection (№ 127, p. 81). It so happens that this manuscript is among the many already made available through the British Library’s digitization project: see here. Following Wright, Margoliouth dates the manuscript to the 18th century. It contains Pss 1-11:4, 51, 121, 123, 130, 140. Unlike most Ethiopic manuscripts, this one is on paper, not parchment.

The beginning of Ps 1 is in both catalogs mentioned above, but we can now look at the manuscript itself, and in its entirety, thanks to the BL’s having made the images freely accessible. Here are some examples (Heb text below from BHS):

Ps 1:3

וְֽהָיָ֗ה כְּעֵץ֮ שָׁת֪וּל עַֽל־פַּלְגֵ֫י מָ֥יִם אֲשֶׁ֤ר פִּרְיֹ֨ו׀ יִתֵּ֬ן בְּעִתֹּ֗ו וְעָלֵ֥הוּ לֹֽא־יִבֹּ֑ול וְכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂ֣ה יַצְלִֽיחַ׃

Ps 1:3 in Ethio-Hebrew, BL Add. 19432, f. 1r. Source.

Ps 1:3 in Ethio-Hebrew, BL Add. 19432, f. 1r. Source.

Ps 2:1-2

לָ֭מָּה רָגְשׁ֣וּ גֹויִ֑ם וּ֝לְאֻמִּ֗ים יֶהְגּוּ־רִֽיק׃ יִ֥תְיַצְּב֨וּ׀ מַלְכֵי־אֶ֗רֶץ וְרֹוזְנִ֥ים נֹֽוסְדוּ־יָ֑חַד עַל־יְ֝הוָה וְעַל־מְשִׁיחֹֽו׃

Ps 2:1-2 in Ethio-Hebrew, BL Add. 19432, f. 1v. Source.

Ps 2:1-2 in Ethio-Hebrew, BL Add. 19432, f. 1v. Source.

Ps 121

שִׁ֗יר לַֽמַּ֫עֲלֹ֥ות אֶשָּׂ֣א עֵ֭ינַי אֶל־הֶהָרִ֑ים מֵ֝אַ֗יִן יָבֹ֥א עֶזְרִֽי׃
עֶ֭זְרִי מֵעִ֣ם יְהוָ֑ה עֹ֝שֵׂ֗ה שָׁמַ֥יִם וָאָֽרֶץ׃
אַל־יִתֵּ֣ן לַמֹּ֣וט רַגְלֶ֑ךָ אַל־יָ֝נ֗וּם שֹֽׁמְרֶֽךָ׃
הִנֵּ֣ה לֹֽא־יָ֭נוּם וְלֹ֣א יִישָׁ֑ן שֹׁ֝ומֵ֗ר יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃
יְהוָ֥ה שֹׁמְרֶ֑ךָ יְהוָ֥ה צִ֝לְּךָ֗ עַל־יַ֥ד יְמִינֶֽךָ׃
יֹומָ֗ם הַשֶּׁ֥מֶשׁ לֹֽא־יַכֶּ֗כָּה וְיָרֵ֥חַ בַּלָּֽיְלָה׃
יְֽהוָ֗ה יִשְׁמָרְךָ֥ מִכָּל־רָ֑ע יִ֝שְׁמֹ֗ר אֶת־נַפְשֶֽׁךָ׃
יְֽהוָ֗ה יִשְׁמָר־צֵאתְךָ֥ וּבֹואֶ֑ךָ מֵֽ֝עַתָּ֗ה וְעַד־עֹולָֽם׃

Ps 121 in Ethio-Hebrew, BL Add. 19432, f. 9r. Source.

Ps 121 in Ethio-Hebrew, BL Add. 19432, f. 9r. Source.

More could be certainly be said, but here are a few scattered observations:

  • The Hebrew h marking final or -e is written (e.g. ሀያህ, ያዓሢህ [ሤ?]).
  • Hebrew is spelled with Gǝʿǝz ፀ (e.g. ክዔፅ, ኤሬፅ) or ጸ (e.g. ይትያጽቡ).
  • Hebrew š is generally spelled with Gǝʿǝz ሠ (e.g. ሣቱል, አሤር, ሦምሬካ), as is Hebrew ś (ያዓሢህ [ሤ?]). In at least one place (Ps 121:6), though, the Ethiopic letter ሸ (not used in Gǝʿǝz, but used in other Ethiosemitic languages) is fittingly used for š: ሀሸሜስ häšämes, but note that the last consonant here, which should also be š, is here a simple s (not ś as usual elsewhere in the manuscript), so that we end up with a form like Arabic šams.
  • Spirantized Hebrew k is spelled with Gǝʿǝz ኀ (e.g. ውኁል, also note the vowel, wǝxul). Spirantization in the other BGDKPT letters is not marked (e.g. ያቦእ).
  • The Hebrew in yārēaḥ is written with Gǝʿǝz ሀ (ውያሬሀ).
  • The Hebrew impf prefix yi- is spelled with Gǝʿǝz yǝ- (e.g. ይቴን, ይቦል). The prefix ye- is spelled with Gǝʿǝz yä- (የሄጉ; note the incorrect vowel on the h).
  • The tetragrammaton is written ይሁዋህ yǝhuwah.
  • The Gǝʿǝz vowel i often appears where we expect e. The latter vowel is used for Heb segol (e.g. ኤሬፅ, ኤል, ኤት); for the pausal form ā́reṣ we have አሬፅ.
  • An Ethiopism is ሚኵል for Heb mikkol.
  • There are some mistakes, such as ወዓላሁ for וְעָלֵ֥הוּ. The first two words of Ps 2 are missing.

The Pericope adulterae in Old Georgian   Leave a comment

Just over a year ago I wrote on the Pericope adulterae in an East Syriac manuscript in our collections (CCM 64; see here). I’ve recently read over the passage in the two Old Georgian versions that include it (Pre-Athonite and Athonite; not in Adishi). Birdsall wrote on it, and Chris Keith discusses the passage in Georgian a little, especially its placement, in his 2009 book (pp. 124-126). As far as I know, the texts have never been published together, nor is any English translation available, so I have prepared a document with a synoptic presentation of each verse of the passage in Greek (NA27) and the two Georgian versions together with some verse-by-verse vocabulary and grammatical notes (file here). I offer no full textual commentary, but some sense of the distinctive readings of each version compared with each other (and with Greek) will also be evident in the English translation of each Georgian version I give below. These English translations are literal, but nevertheless not every difference between the two versions can be indicated.

Bibliography

J. Neville Birdsall, “The Pericope Adulterae in Georgian,” Studia Patristica 39 (2006): 185–92.

Chris Keith, The Pericope Adulterae, the Gospel of John, and the Literacy of Jesus (Leiden, 2009).

(See some artwork from HMML collections related to the scene here, here, here, and here.)

English translation

PA 7:53 And each one left for his home.
At 7:53 And each one left for his home.

PA 8:1 But Jesus went up to the Mount of Olives.
At 8:1 But Jesus left for the Mount of Olives.

PA 8:2 And the next day [OR in the morning] he went again to the temple, and all the people were coming to him, and he was teaching them.
At 8:2 And at dawn he went again to the temple, and all the people were coming to him, and he sat down and was teaching them.

PA 8:3 The high priests and Pharisees brought a woman and stood her in their midst.
At 8:3 But the scribes and Pharisees brought him a woman, who was caught in adultery openly before the people, and they stood her in their midst.

PA 8:4 And they said, “Teacher, this woman was caught seen in adultery.
At 8:4 And they said, because they were testing him, “Teacher, this woman was caught in adultery openly.

PA 8:5 And in the Law of Moses, for such [women] he commands us to throw stone[s]. Now, what do you say?“
At 8:5 And Moses commanded us in the Law to throw stone[s] at such [women]. What, then, do you say?“

PA 8:6 But they said this and were testing him, that they might have something to accuse him of, but Jesus was looking downward and was marking on the ground with his finger.
At 8:6 But they said this and were testing him, that they might have [something] to accuse him of, but Jesus bent down to the ground, was marking on the ground with his finger, and he was saying nothing.

PA 8:7 And when they stood there a while and were looking at him, then he straightened up and said to them, “Whoever among you is sinless, let him first throw a stone at that [woman].”
At 8:7 And when they stood there a while and were looking at him, he straightened up and said to them, “Whoever of you is sinless, let him first throw a stone at that [woman].”

PA 8:8 And he again bent down to the ground.
At 8:8 And he again bent down and was marking on the ground.

PA 8:9 But when they heard it, the elders and scribes began, and one by one they were going away, and he himself was left alone, and the woman stood before Jesus.
At 8:9 But when they heard it, exposed from their conscience, they were going away one by one. They began from the elders, until he himself was left alone, and the woman stood in the midst.

PA 8:10 And Jesus looked and said to her, “Woman, where are your accusers? No one accuses you?”
At 8:10 And Jesus straightened up and saw no one except the woman, and he said to her, “Where are your accusers? No one accused you?”

PA 8:11 But she said, “No one, Lord!” And Jesus said to her, “I don’t accuse you either. Go, and from now on don’t sin.”
At 8:11 But she said, “No one, Lord!” But Jesus said to her, “I don’t accuse you either. Go, and from now on don’t sin.”

“Evil head!” A term addressed to martyrs in hagiographic literature   2 comments

While perusing the Armenian synaxarion over the weekend, I came across an expression that I remembered seeing in a Syriac text that I edited a few years ago. In the Syriac Martyrdom of Theonilla (my edition and translation, in Analecta Bollandiana 128 [2010]: 312-328, are available here), § 9, when they are trying to get Theonilla to renounce Christianity, they say to her, lā tpakknin, qarqaptā bištā!, which I translated as “Stop chattering, wretch!” and in a note on “wretch” I indicated the literal meaning, “evil head”, and I pointed to Hoffmann’s Iulianos der Abtruennige: Syrische Erzaehlungen (Leiden, 1880), 82.12, which is cited by both Brockelmann and Payne Smith, s.v. qarqaptā. I also cited the similar expression ὦ κακὴ κεφαλή from the Martyrdom of Domnina (Lackner, “Eine unedierte griechische Passion der kilikischen Märtyrin Domnina,” AB 90 [1972]: 241-259, here p. 254, § 4). In the Armenian synaxarion reading that commemorates Fausta on Mehekan 8/Feb 14 (PO 21: 39-42; for the Greek synaxarion, see Feb 6 here, and further BHG 658 [mainly catal. references]), this same expression occurs twice, again with the “bad guys” using it to address a Christian martyr-to-be, here the recently converted Evilasius.

Եւ առաքեաց զեպարքոսն Մաքսիմիանոս ի Կիզիկոն, եւ երթեալ հարցանէր ընդ Եւիլասիոս. Ով չարագլուխ, ո՞րպէս իշխեցեր թեթեւացուցանել զաստուածսն մեր, եւ լինել քրիստանեայ։ (40.15-17)

He [the emperor] sent the eparch Maximianus to Cyzicus and [the latter], having arrived, was questioning Evilasius, “You evil head, how have you dared to think lightly of our gods and to become a Christian?”

And not many lines later Maximianus addresses Fausta herself with the title, this time with a preceding adjective:

Կոչեաց եպարկոսն զՓաւստեա եւ ասէ. Ով փոքրիկ չարագլուխ, ո՞րպէս իշխեցեր զայնպիսի մեծ իշխան թագաւորին եւ զաստուածոց քահանայն կորզել ի մէնջ եւ մատուցանել Աստուծոյն քոյ։ (41.6-8)

The eparch called Fausta and said, “You little evil head, how have you dared to snatch from us such a great prince of the emperor and priest of the gods [i.e. Evilasius] and to offer him to your god?”

The Armenian word (չարագլուխ) is a compound, and it does show up in Bedrosian’s dictionary (582a), with the meaning “malignant, malevolent,” etc. There are terms of abuse in English (and other languages) with the suffix -head and -skull (blockhead, numbskull, etc.), but I know of nothing quite like “evil head”. This expression almost certainly appears in other hagiographic tales (and elsewhere?), in these and other languages. If you know of or come across any, please note them in the comments.

UPDATE Feb 17, 2015. I mentioned the Greek ὦ κακὴ κεφαλή above. A quick search in TLG reveals its occurrence in a few other martyrdom texts (there are, of course, many such texts not yet in TLG), but also four times in Aesop’s fables; Dem. De falsa leg. 313; Nicolaus, Frag. 10.56 (see FHG 3, pp. 348‑464); twice in Plutarch (Alexander 9.8.2, 51.1.2); six times in Libanius (Decl. 12.2.25.2, 12.2.32.2; Prog. 7.1.26.4, 7.3.21.2, 7.4.12.1, 7.4.17.1); and Achilles Tatius, Leucippe et Clitophon 5.17.8.3. (This list is not exhaustive.) The expression is especially used in questions. In his epigrams to the Bible (Luke 250a, on Lk 22:31), Theodore Prodromos uses this vocative expression to address Satan, and finally, here is a memorable curse from the Scholia to Lucian’s Μυίας ἐγκώμιον (§ 7): ἀλλ’ ἔρρ’ ἐς μυίας καὶ σκώληκας, κακὴ κεφαλή. “To flies and worms with you, evil head!” (Ἔρρε, with or without qualifiers, is used this way.)

Two meteorological reports from the sixteenth century   Leave a comment

As anyone who frequents this blog knows, manuscripts can be much more than simple receptacles for the main texts that their scribes copied. When present, colophons, notes, &c., may make a manuscript even more valuable and interesting. Here is a case in point. On f. 241r of SMMJ 211, a fifteenth-century copy of Bar ʿEbrāyā’s Chronography (secular & eccles.), are two later meteorological reports from different hands, neither the scribe’s.

Notes in outer column of SMMJ 211, f. 241r.

Notes in outer column of SMMJ 211, f. 241r.

 

 

 

The first note says roughly in English:

In the year 1814 (= 1502/3 CE) AG, in the month of Ḥzirān, there was a white meteor like the darkest night in the middle of the air for about an hour in the day, and everyone [lit. the whole world] saw it. And in the same year, on the feast of St. Jacob, on the 29th of the month of Tammuz, there was great and powerful thunder before midday, and with it were white clouds (ʿnānā), yet without a mist (ʿaymā) in the air, or rain, and this thunder continued roaring for about an hour of the day. They heard its sound throughout the region all the way to Gāzartā and the valley, and many people were frightened of its sound and fell on their faces. While the Lord shows us these signs for us to be repentant, our insolent and refractory heart neither repents nor is softened. May the Lord not repay us according to our evils, but according to the multitude of his mercy — amen — and his grace.

And from almost seven decades later, the second note (in less careful handwriting) says:

In the year 1882 AG (= 1570/1 CE) the clouds thickened and much rain appeared in Ṭur ʿĀbdin with terrible thunder, and intense lightning came down for six days in the month of Āb during the Feast of Booths in the villages, one of which is called Zāz, before the outer land of the Church of Mar Dimeṭ, and this lightning came down upon a house near that church with wood and straw inside it, and the house caught fire [with] all the firewood and straw.

(For the Church of Mar Dimet in Zaz, see a picture here.)

Update: Thanks to Thomas Carlson for the suggestion about PQʿTʾ (valley) in the first note, which I initially read as an unidentified place-name PWʿTʾ. The scribe writes waw and qop with little difference.

From the Armenian synaxarion, Feb 9: Victorinus and companions in Corinth, with English translation   Leave a comment

The martyrdom story of Victorinus, Victor, Nicephorus, Claudius, Diodore, Serapion, and Papias (cf. BHO 1245 for Syriac, see here; for Greek here, on Jan 31), set in the time of Decius, offers students of Armenian — at least those with a strong stomach — a worthwhile opportunity for reading practice and vocabulary learning, especially for terms for body parts. Below is the Armenian text from PO 21: 13-14, vocabulary, and my English translation.

Զսրբոյն Բիքտորինոսի հանին զաջոյ ակն, եւ ի մամուլս ջախջախեցին զմարմինն, եւ սրով հատին զամենայն մատունսն ոտիցն եւ ձեռացն։

  • հանին pres 3pl հանեմ, հանի to remove, pull out
  • աջ, -ոյ, -ու right
  • ակն, ական eye
  • մամուլ, մամլոց press
  • ջախջախեցին aor 3pl ջախջախեմ, -եցի to crush
  • սուր, սրոց sword
  • հատին aor 3pl հատանեմ, հատի to cut (off)
  • մատն, մատին, մատանց finger, toe
  • ոտն, ոտին, ոտից foot
  • ձեռն, ձեռին, ձեռաց hand

Եւ զսուրբն Վիքտորոս կապեցին ի չորս ցիցս զձեռս եւ զոտս, եւ հատին զլեզուն, եւ քերանօք քերթեցին զամենայն մարմինն։

  • կապեցին aor 3pl կապեմ, -եցի to bind, tie
  • ցից, ցցոյ stake, post
  • լեզու, -ի/-ոյ, -աց tongue
  • քերանք (act of) scratching, scraping
  • քերթեցին aor 3pl քերթեմ, -եցի to flay, peel off

Եւ զսուրբն Նիկիփորոս պնդեցին ի մեքենայս մինչեվ հոսեաց արիւնն ի քթացն եւ ի բերանոյն եւ յականջացն, եւ ապա կախեցին զհերացն յարմաւենի ծառ։

  • պնդեցին aor 3pl պնդեմ, -եցի to strain, tighten
  • մեքենայ, -ից machine, device
  • հոսեաց aor 3sg հոսեմ, -եցի to flow, gush, stream
  • արիւն, արեանց blood
  • քիթ, քթաց nose
  • բերան, -ոց mouth
  • ականջք, -աց ears (plurale tantum; a single ear is ունկն, ունկան)
  • կախեցին aor 3pl կախեմ, -եցի to hang, suspend
  • հեր, -աց hair
  • արմաւենի palm tree
  • ծառ, -ոց tree

Եւ զսուրբն Կղաւդիոս խիստ տանջեցին, եւ կախեցին գլխիվայր, եւ աղբ ծխեցին յերեսն. եւ արկին ի հոտոտելիսն քացախ խիստ, եւ ապա կտրեցին զձեռսն եւ զոտսն։

  • խիստ harshly, cruelly, severely
  • տանջեցին aor 3pl տանջեմ, -եցի to torture
  • գլխիվայր head downwards, upside down (< գլուխ, գլխոց head)
  • ծխեցին aor 3pl ծխեմ, -եցի to smoke
  • երեսք, երեսաց (plurale tantum) face
  • արկին aor 3pl արկանեմ, արկի to cast, throw
  • հոտոտելիք, -լեաց (plurale tantum) nose
  • քացախ, -ոյ vinegar, acid
  • կտրեցին aor 3pl կտրեմ, -եցի to cut (off)

Եւ զսուրբն Դիոդորոս յետ բազում չարչարանաց հրով այրեցին։

  • չարչարանք, -նաց (plurale tantum) suffering, torment, torture, pain
  • հուր, հրոյ fire
  • այրեցին aor 3pl այրեմ, -եցի to burn

Եւ զսուրբն Սրապիոն սրով գլխատեցին։

  • գլխատեցին aor 3pl գլխատեմ, -եցի to behead, decapitate (< գլուխ, գլխոց head)

Եւ զսուրբն Պապիաս բեւեռեցին ի փայտի, եւ կապեալ վիմաւ ընկեցին ի ծովն։

  • բեւեռեցին aor 3pl բեւեռեմ, -եցի to nail (< բեւեռ, -ի, -աց nail)
  • փայտ, -ից wood, tree
  • կապեալ ptcp կապեմ, -եցի to bind, tie
  • վէմ, վիմաց stone, rock
  • ընկեցին aor 3pl ընկենում, ըկեցի to throw, cast
  • ծով, -ուց sea

Եւ այնպէս կատարեցան ի Քրիստոս։

  • կատարեցան aor m/p 3pl կատարեմ, -եցի to finish, end, complete; m/p to die

English’d:

They plucked out Saint Victorinus’ right eye, crushed his body in a press, and cut off all his fingers and toes with the sword. They bound Saint Victor to four stakes with his hands and feet, cut out his tongue, and lacerated his whole body. They pressed Saint Nicephorus in a machine until the blood gushed from his nose, mouth, and ears, and then they hung him from a palm tree. They harshly tortured Saint Claudius, hung him upside down, burned smoke into his face, poured vinegar down his nose, and then they cut off his hands and feet. Saint Diodore, after much suffering, they burned with fire. They beheaded Saint Serapion with the sword. They nailed Saint Papias to a piece of wood and they threw him, bound with a stone, into the sea. And thus they died in Christ.

From the Armenian synaxarion, Feb 6: Abraham of Arbel and King Leo II   Leave a comment

Here again from the synaxarion are some short passages especially suitable for students of the language. I’ve included some vocabulary and grammatical notes. A French translation is in the PO volume, and we can expect an English translation of the Armenian synaxarion for the month of February before too long from Edward G. Mathews, Jr. (see a few comments on the first volume here).

Abraham of Arbel

PO 19: 148 (cf. BHO 12; perh. also 13?)

Զայս երանելի եպիսկոպոսս տարան կապանօք առաջի մոգպետին Ադելփոռայ, եւ հրամայէր նմա երկիր պագանել արեգականն եւ հրոյ եւ զոհս մատուցանել։

  • տարան aor 3pl տանիմ, տարայ to carry away, lead, bring
  • կապանք bonds, handcuffs, irons
  • մոգպետ chief magus
  • հրամայէր impf 3sg հրամայեմ, -եցի to command
  • երկիր պագանել to kiss the earth > to prostrate o.s. in worship (with the thing worshiped in the genitive)
  • արեգակն, արեգական sun
  • հուր, հրոյ fire
  • զոհ, -ից sacrifice, victim, host
  • մատուցանել inf մատուցանեմ, -եցի to present, offer

Եւ նորա բացեալ զբերան իւր յերկար բանիւք ի սուրբ գրոց յանդիմանէր զսնոտի հաւատս Սաբիւռոսի.

  • բացեալ ptcp բանամ, բացի to open
  • երկար, -աց long
  • գիր, գրոց writing, scripture
  • յանդիմանէր impf 3sg յանդիմանեմ, -եցի to reprimand, reproach, rebuke sharply
  • սնոտի, -տւոյ, -տեաց useless, worthless
  • հաւատ, -ոյ, -ք, -տոց faith, belief, religion

անարգեաց եւ զմոգպետն Ադելփորա, եւ զունայն օրինադրութիւնն։ Եւ հրամայեաց հատանել զգլուխ նորա ի քաղաքին Թելոմ։

  • անարգեաց aor 3sg անարգեմ, -եցի to disparage, despise, find fault with
  • ունայն, -ից empty, void, useless
  • օրինադրութիւն law, decree, institution
  • հրամայեաց aor 3sg հրամայեմ, -եցի to command
  • հատանել inf հատանեմ, հատի to cut (off)

Եւ յորժամ տարան ի տեղին, հարցանէր դահիճն. Դառնա՞ս ի հաւատս մեր եթէ մեռանիս։

  • հարցանէր impf 3sg հարցանեմ, հարցի to ask, interrogate, question
  • դահիճ, դահճաց hangman, executioner, torturer
  • դառնաս pres 2sg դառնամ, դարձայ to turn, be converted
  • մեռանիս pres 2sg մեռանիմ, մեռայ to die

Եւ նա ասէ. Ոչ ուրանամ զճշմարտութիւնն, եւ ոչ դառնամ ի պիղծ դաւանութիւնդ ձեր.

  • ուրանամ, -ացայ to deny, disown, disavow
  • պիղծ, պղծոց impure, filthy, foul, detestable
  • դաւանութիւն (confession of) faith, belief

հաւատամ ի Հայր եւ յՈրդի եւ յամենասուրբ Հոգի, ի միասնական սուրբ Երրորդութիւնն։

  • հաւատամ, -ացի to believe
  • միասնական consubstantial, united
  • Երրորդութիւն Trinity

Եւ մինչդեռ խոստովանութիւնն ի բերանն էր՝ հատին զգլուխ նորա Փետրուարի Զ։

  • խոստովանութիւն confession, declaration
  • հատին aor 3pl հատանեմ, հատի to cut (off)

King Leo II (on whom see here)

PO 19: 150

Յայսմ աւուր հանգեաւ ի Քրիստոս Լեւոն թագաւոր երկրորդ՝ որդի արքային Հեթմոյ։

  • հանգեաւ aor m/p 3sg հանգչիմ, հանգեայ to go to rest, die
  • NB the two words for king: թագաւոր and արքայ

Սա էր բարեպաշտ յոյժ եւ առաքինի, հեզ, երկայնամիտ, պարկեշտ, ժուժկալ, եւ ողորմածութեամբ առաւելեալ քան զամենեսին։

  • բարեպաշտ pious, religious
  • առաքինի, -նւոյ, -նեաց valiant, courageous
  • հեզ mild, meek, gentle (as in Mt 5:5, 11:29, 21:5)
  • երկայնամիտ, -մտաց patient
  • պարկեշտ, -ից moderate, temperate; pure
  • ժուժկալ, -ից/-աց patient; abstinent, sober, temperate; chaste
  • ողորմածութիւն mercy, compassion, charity, goodness
  • առաւելեալ ptcp առաւելում, -ելայ to abound
  • ամենեսին acc of ամենեքին everybody

Շինեաց եւ հիւրանոցս եւ հիւանդանոցս, նորոգեաց զվանորայս եւ հաստատեաց ի նոսա դպրոցս. եւ աստուածահաճոյ վարուք փոխեցաւ առ Աստուած։

  • շինեաց aor 3sg շինեմ, -եցի to found, build, construct
  • հիւրանոց hospice, guest lodging (հիւր, -ոց/-ից guest, visitor, stranger)
  • հիւանդանոց hospital (հիւանդ, -աց sick)
  • նորոգեաց aor 3sg նորոգեմ, -եցի to repair, restore
  • վանորայք monasteries, convents
  • հաստատեաց aor 3sg հաստատեմ, -եցի to restore; to institute, found, create
  • դպրոց, -աց school
  • աստուածահաճոյ god-pleasing
  • փոխեցաւ aor m/p 3sg փոխեմ, -եցի to change, remove, transfer (m/p to go, depart, die)

The education of Isidore of Pelusium; the martyrdom of Philo Persicus   Leave a comment

For your synaxarial enjoyment and entertainment, here are two passages from the reading for Amšīr/Yäkkatit 10 (Feb 4), each in both Arabic and Gǝʿǝz, with a rough English translation and some vocabulary.

On Isidore of Pelusium

(For Greek, see here.)

Arabic in PO 11: 814.10, 815.1-2 (here)

ولم يكن لوالده سواه فأدّبه بكل ادب نفساني وجُسماني وعلّماه كتب البيعة فأتْقنها ظاهرا ثم تعلّم العلوم اليونانية والدينية فأتْقنها وفاق على كثيرين فيها وكان مع ذلك ناسكا ومتواضعا

  • addaba to educate
  • adab education
  • ʿallama to instruct, teach
  • atqana to master, know well
  • ẓāhiran clearly, obviously, evidently
  • taʿallama to learn
  • nāsik pious, ascetic

His father had no child except him, so he educated him in every subject, spiritual and physical, and they [dual: the patriarchs Theophilus and Cyril] taught him the books of the church and he mastered them clearly. Then he learned the Greek and religious sciences and he mastered them, and he surpassed many in these things. In addition, he was pious and humble.

Gǝʿǝz in PO 45: 520.21-26

ወኢኮኖሙ ፡ ለአበዊሁ ፡ ውሉድ ፡ ዘእንበሌሁ ፡ ወመሀርዎ ፡ ኵሎ ፡ ትምህርተ ፡ መንፈሳዌ ፡ ወሥጋዌ ፡ ወመሀርዎ ፡ ኵሎ ፡ መጻሕፍተ ፡ ቤተ ፡ ክርስቲያን ፡ ወአጽንዖሙ ፡ ወዓቀቦሙ ፡ ገሃደ ። ወእምዝ ፡ ተምህረ ፡ ትምህርታተ ፡ ዮናናዊያን ፡ ወአእምሮ ፡ ከዋክብተ ፡ ሰማይ ፡ ወዘየዐውድ ፡ ኵሎ ፡ አጽናፈ ፡ ዓለም ፡ ወተለዐለ ፡ ላዕለ ፡ ብዙኃን ፡ በአእምሮቱ ፡ ወበጥበቡ ፡ ወኮነ ፡ ጽሙደ ፡ ወመስተጋድለ ፡ ወትሑተ ።

  • መሀረ፡ to teach
  • ትምህርት፡ teaching
  • አጽንዐ፡ to learn by heart
  • ገሃደ፡ plainly, clearly, openly, publicly
  • ተምህረ፡ to be taught, to be versed in
  • ዖደ፡ to encircle, encompass
  • ጽንፍ፡ pl. አጽናፍ፡ edge, extremity, confines
  • ጽሙድ፡ (ፅሙድ፡) pious, devout
  • መስተጋድል፡ fighter, combatant, ascetic
  • ትሑት፡ humble

His parents had no child except him, and they taught him every subject, spiritual and physical, and they taught him the books of the church, and he learned them by heart and kept them openly. Then he learned the teachings of the Greeks and the knowledge of the stars of heaven and that which encompasses altogether the edges of the universe, and he surpassed many in his knowledge and wisdom and was pious, ascetic, and humble.

On Philo Persicus

Arabic in PO 18: 815.11, 816.1-2 (here)

وفيه ايضا تنيّح القدّيس فيلوا اسقف ارض فارس الذي استشهد على يد ملك الفرس حتى لا يعبد النار ولا يسجد للشمس فعاقبه كثيرا واخيرا استشهد بحدّ السيف صلاته تكون معنا امين

  • tanayyaḥa to go to rest, die
  • ḥattá must be causal here (cf. Lane, p. 509a, “denoting a cause or motive”)
  • ʿāqaba to punish, torture
  • ḥadd side, edge

On this day, too, Saint Philo, bishop of the land of Persia (Fāris), went to rest [i.e. died]. He was martyred by the king of the Persians (al-Furs) since he would not worship the fire or bow down to the sun, so he tortured him a lot and finally he was martyred by the edge of the sword. May his prayer be with us! Amen.

Gǝʿǝz in PO 45: 522.8-11

ወበዛቲ ፡ ዕለት ፡ ካዕበ ፡ ኮነ ፡ ቅዱስ ፡ አባ ፡ ፊሎ ፡ ሰማዕት ፡ ወኤጲስ ፡ ቆጶስ ፡ ዘሀገረ ፡ ፋርስ ፡ ዘኰነኖ ፡ ንጉሠ ፡ ፋርስ ፡ ሶበ ፡ ኢሦዓ ፡ ለእሳት ፡ ወኢሰገደ ፡ ለፀሐይ ። ወሶበ ፡ ደክመ ፡ አምኵነኔሁ ፡ መተረ ፡ ርእሶ ፡ በሰይፍ ፡ ወነሥአ ፡ አክሊለ ፡ ስምዕ ፡ በመንግሥተ ፡ ሰማያት ። ጸሎቱ ፡ ወበረከቱ ፡ የሀሉ ፡ ምስሌነ ፡ አሜን ።

  • ኰነነ፡ D to punish
  • ኵነኔ፡ torture
  • ሦዐ፡ to sacrifice
  • ደክመ፡ to be(come) weak
  • መተረ፡ G/D to cut

Also on this day was [the death of] the holy Abba Philo, martyr and bishop of the land of Persia (Fārs). The king of Persia (Fārs) tortured him when he [Philo] did not sacrifice to the fire and did not bow down to the sun. When he [Philo] had become weak from the torture, he [the king] cut off his head with the sword, and he received the crown of martyrdom in the kingdom of heaven. May his prayer and blessing be with us! Amen.

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