Archive for the ‘hagiography’ Tag

Saint Christopher the Dog-headed (Armenian & Georgian; Old English)   2 comments

Some time ago I shared some excerpts in English translation from the Syriac version of the Martyrdom of Christopher. One of my favorite aspects of hagiographic study is the fact that so many texts are available in some form or other in more than one language (an aspect investigated by Paul Peeters and others): translators active in the languages of the Christian east spared little effort in effectively broadcasting these versions across the lands of the eastern Mediterranean, in Africa as far as Nubia and Ethiopia, at least, and along the Silk Road further east (in Syriac, Sogdian, and other languages). An incomplete picture of this translation activity can be seen in the outdated but still essential Bibliotheca hagiographica orientalis (1910), incomplete because of its age, because it reflects only published (as opposed to manuscript) resources, and because not all languages were included, the almost complete absence of Georgian being especially noteworthy. (See the bibliography I am compiling here.) These translated texts offer readers a lot to compare, whether in terms of content — how are the versions different or the same, for example, and why? — or in terms of specific linguistic categories, i.e. within the study of translation technique. Editions and studies of hagiographic text materials often take place along the lines of a single language (whether the original or a translation), less frequently with texts in two languages, but a great many hagiographic texts offer the possibility and promise of multilingual synoptic editions.

That said, nothing so grand here and now: without going into detail about the possible textual relationships of the versions of this story, here is only a short look at an Armenian and Georgian version of the martyrdom-tale, with a bit on Old English at the end. What follows is a single paragraph from the beginning about the saint’s appearance, origins, and first impulse towards martyrdom; the text is from Kekelidze’s edition of the Christopher tale (§ 2) from manuscript Tbilisi A-95, which is thankfully available electronically at TITUS here, along with bitonal, and unfortunately quite small, images of the manuscript itself. Even a quick comparison with the published Greek text (ed. G. van Hooff in the very first issue of AB [1882], this part on pp. 122-123) shows that an exact alignment of the two is impossible, and so, too, with the Armenian (here in Վարք եւ վկայաբանւթիւնք, vol. 2; “dog-headed” in Armenian is շանագլուխ, in case you’re wondering). Here are the beginnings of the aforementioned Armenian and Georgian texts with English translation and, for students of those languages, some lexical and grammatical notes. For comparison, note these synaxarion-readings: Arm. in PO 21: 429-433; Arab. in PO 16: 278-280; Gǝʿǝz in PO 46: 490-493.

Armenian

Եւ էր այր մի Շանագլուխ, գտեալ զնա կոմսի մի ի պատերազնի, եւ ած զնա առ թագաւորն եւ զինուորեցոյց զնա ընդ զօրս իւր. որոյ անուն էր Մարգարիտ։ Եւ տեսեալ զգործս ամպարըշտութեանն՝ խռովէր, եւ շարժեալ սիրտ նորա ի շնորհաց սուրբ Հոգւոյն՝ աղաչէր զԱստուած լինել ձեռնտու եւ օգնական յամենայնի, զի համարձակեսցի խօսել զբանն կենաց նովին բարբառով եւ լեզուաւ, եւ ոչ էր տեղեակ լեզուին։

There was a dog-headed man, whom a count, after having found him in battle, brought him to the king and enlisted him in his army, the name of which was Margarit [Greek ἐν τῷ νουμέρῳ τῶν μαρμαριτῶν]. Having seen the works of wickedness [there], [the dog-headed man] was troubled, and his heart having been moved by the grace of the Holy Spirit, he would ask God to be favorable and assisting in everything, that he might be permitted to speak the word of life with the same language and speech, and he was not skilled in speech.

  • գտեալ root ptcp գտանեմ to find
  • կոմէս, կոմսի count (< Gr.)
  • պատերազն, -ի, -ունք, -աց war, battle, fight, combat
  • ած aor 3sg ածեմ, ածի to lead, bring
  • զինուորեցոյց aor 3sg զինուորեցուցանեմ, -ուցի to enlist, train as a soldier, arm (analogous to ցուցանեմ to show [aor 1sg ցուցի, 3sg եցոյց], ուսուցանեմ to teach [aor 1sg ուսուցի, 3sg ուսոյց]) (for the root, cf. ultimately Middle Persian zēn, also Aramaic zēnā/zaynā, “weapon”)
  • զօր, -ու, -աց army
  • տեսեալ root ptcp տեսանեմ, տեսի to see
  • գործ, -ոյ work, thing, matter, action
  • ամպարըշտութիւն (ամբարշտութիւն) impiety, ungodliness, wickedness
  • խռովէր impf 3sg խռովեմ, -եցի to trouble, vex, disturb (here passive)
  • շարժեալ root ptcp շարժեմ, -եցի to move, agitate
  • սիրտ, սրտից heart
  • շնորհ, -ի, -ք, -աց grace, favor, pardon, mercy
  • աղաչէր impf 3sg աղաչեմ, -եցի to implore, ask
  • լինել inf. լինիմ to become
  • ձեռնտու helping, aiding, favorable
  • օգնական assisting, aiding
  • համարձակեսցի aor subj m/p 3sg համարձակեմ, -եցի to embolden; permit, allow
  • խօսել inf խօսիմ, -եցայ to speak, talk
  • բան, -ից speech, word, discourse
  • կեանք, կենաց life
  • նովին inst sg նոյն the same, the very
  • բարբառ, -ոյ speech, voice, language, dialect; cry; sound
  • լեզու, -ի/-ոյ, -աց tongue, language, speech
  • տեղեակ skilled, expert, well-versed

Georgian

იყო ვინმე კაცი მდაბალი და მოშიში ღმრთისაჲ. უცხოთესლთა ნათესავი, და ძაღლის-თავი იყო იგი. რამეთუ იყო იგი სოფლისაგან კაცის-მჭამელთაჲსა ტყუედ მოყვანებული გუნდისა ერთისაგან; და იქცეოდა იგი წინაშე მეფისა, და ნაქმევსა პირისა მისისასა შესცხრებიან. ხოლო ხედვიდა იგი დაჭრასა მას ქრისტიანეთასა და დევნასა ეკლესიათასა. და რამეთუ არა იცოდა მან ჩუენებრი სიტყუაჲ, ამისთჳს ფრიად და მწრაფლ მას-ცა ეგულებოდა მარტჳლობაჲ და ღუაწლი ქრისტჱსათჳს.

There was a certain man, humble and God-fearing, of barbarian stock, and he was dog-headed, since he was from the region of cannibals, brought as a prisoner from a troop. He would spend time before the king, and they enjoyed looking on the appearance of his face. But he noticed with concern the injury being done to the Christians and the persecution of the churches. Since he did not know speech like ours, for this reason he was greatly and quickly desiring martyrdom and a struggle for Christ.

  • მდაბალი humble
  • უცხოთესლი barbarian
  • ნათესავი relative, related
  • ძაღლი dog
  • მჭამელი eating (კაცის-მჭამელი man-eating, cannibal)
  • ტყუეჲ prisoner
  • მოყვანებული brought
  • გუნდი troop (cf. Middle Persian gund, Armenian գունդ, Aramaic gundā; see Jeffery, Foreign Vocabulary of the Qurʾān, 104-105, and more briefly, Fraenkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen, 238-239)
  • ი-ქც-ე-ოდ-ა impf 3sg ქცევა to go, move, walk around
  • ნაქმევი form, appearance
  • პირი face, mouth
  • შე-ს-ცხრ-ებ-ი-ან pres 3pl O3 შეცხრომა to take pleasure in, look on fondly
  • ხედ-ვ-იდ-ა impf 3sg ხედვა to see, care for, look after
  • დაჭრაჲ cutting, hurting
  • დევნაჲ persecution
  • იცოდა impf 3sg “to know”. An irregular verb, it takes, not only in the aor (3sg იცნა), but also in the impf (as here), subjects in the ergative and objects in the nominative. (This particular irregularity, manifest as such in assuming იცოდა is Series I — it thus being peculiar in having an ergative subject — points to this verb’s complex history, one in which the ending -ოდა has caused a Series II form to be taken as Series I [imperfect].)
  • მწრაფლ quick
  • ე-გულებ-ოდ-ა impf 3sg (indirect verb) გულება to wish, want
  • მარტჳლობაჲ martyrdom (also მარტჳრობაჲ < μάρτυς)
  • ღუაწლი struggle

Old English

Finally, and for fun, here is mention of dog-headed people, this time in Egypt, in The Wonders of the East in the famous Old English manuscript, Cotton MS Vitellius A XV, f. 100r (see here), presented essentially as in the manuscript, with a few vocabulary items.

Eac swẏlce þær beoð cende
healf hundingas ða syndon
hatene conopenas hẏ hab-
bað horses mana & eoferes
tuxas & hunda heafda & heo-
ra oruð bið swẏlce fẏres leg
þas land beoð neah ðæm bur-
gu(m) þe beoð eallum worldwe-
lum gefylled þ(æt) is on þa suðhealfe egẏpta-
na landes.

  • cennan give birth
  • healf-hunding cynocephalus
  • syndon = sind are
  • hātan to call, name
  • eofor wild board (cf. L. aper)
  • tux = tusc (NB the variability of cs [x] and sc)
  • oroþ breath
  • līg, lēg flame
  • weorld-wela worldly wealth
BL, Cotton Vitell. A XV, f. 100r

BL, Cotton Vitell. A XV, f. 100r

Note that immediately preceding this text is a life of Saint Christopher (ff. 94r-98r; mod. ET here), but it is acephalous (pun intended), and Christopher’s dog-head is not mentioned, it seems, but in the Old English Martyrology (April 28; pp. 66-69 in Herzfeld’s ed.), we find the description on Christopher as above (and as in Syriac), and with vocabulary similar to that of the passage in The Wonders of the East. Herzfeld’s text and modern ET):

…of þære þeode þær men habbað hunda heofod ond of þære eorðan on þære æton men hi selfe. he hæfde hundes heofod, ond his loccas wæron ofer gemet side, ond his eagan scinon swa leohte swa morgensteorra, ond his teð wæron swa scearpe swa eofores tuxas. he wæs gode geleaffull on his heortan, ac he ne mihte sprecan swa mon.

…from the nation where men have the head of a dog and from the country where men devour each other. He had the head of a dog, his locks were exceedingly thick, his eyes shone as brightly as the morning star, and his teeth were as sharp as a boar’s tusk. In his heart he believed in God, but he could not speak like a man.

A snake in the belly: An episode in the life of Symeon the Stylite (Armenian synaxarion)   1 comment

I have often turned here to Bayan’s ed. of the Armenian synaxarion in PO (see here for the appropriate volumes for each month). Thanks to archive.org, these volumes are all easily accessible, and thus it makes for a convenient reading-text. My colleague, Ed Mathews, in his recently inaugurated series of volumes providing an Armenian synaxarion text with facing ET, briefly sets forth the known versions of the synaxarion in Armenian and also points out that Bayan’s ed. is not quite what he says it is, namely, that of Tēr Israel (pp. xvii-xix). Others, too, have discussed the state of things with the Armenian synaxarion versions (see the bibliography below).

Among HMML’s collections there are, of course, some synaxarion manuscripts, so for today, here is one such manuscript, with a single episode from one of today’s commemorations, that of Symeon the Stylite, compared with Bayan’s edition. The manuscript in question is APIB (Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul, Balat) 1, dated 1637, and with very clear Bolorgir script. Our passage appears on p. 72, col. b, lines 10-20; the corresponding text in Bayan’s ed. is in PO 5: 470.

Here, then, is the manuscript image, the transcribed text of the manuscript and Bayan’s ed. aligned by sentence, some vocabulary and grammar notes for students of the language, and English translations of each.

APIB 1, p. 72, col. b, lines 10-20

APIB 1, p. 72, col. b, lines 10-20

A = APIB 1

B = Bayan

A Կին մի ի գիշերի ջուր ըմպելով. եւ ընդ ջրոյն գնաց յորովայն նորա ձագ աւձի։

B Կին ոմն ի գիշերի ջուր ըմպելով՝ եմուտ յորովայն նորա ընդ ջրոյն ձագ օձի,

  • ըմպեմ, արբի, ա՛րբ to drink (here inf.instr.)
  • գնամ, գնացի to go
  • որովայն, -ից belly
  • ձագ, -ուց young (of a particular animal)
  • աւձ, -ից serpent
  • մտանեմ, մտիմ մուտ to enter

A եւ սնեալ աճեաց ի փորն՝ եւ յո՛յժ չարչարէր ըզկինն։

B եւ սնեալ ի փորին՝ աճեաց եւ յոյժ չարչարէր զկինն.

  • սնանիմ, սնայ to be nourished, fed
  • աճեմ, -եցի to grow, increase
  • փոր, -ոյ/-ի belly, abdomen, insides, cavity
  • յոյժ very, very much, considerably
  • չարչարեմ, -եցի to torment, cause pain

A եւ նա՛ գնացեալ առ ս(ուր)բն սիմէոն եւ ասաց զկիրս անձինն աղաչելով զնա՝ զի աւգնեսցէ՛ նմա։

B եւ գնացեալ առ երանելին աղաչեաց։

  • ասեմ, ասացի to say
  • կիրք, կրից (pl. tantum) suffering, pain, torment, passions, emotion, sentiment
  • անձն, անձին, անձանց person, being, mind, heart, self
  • աղաչեմ, -եցի to supplicate, pray
  • աւգնեմ, -եցի to help, assist

A Եւ ընդ աղօ՛թել սրբոյն ել աւձն ընդ բերան կնոջն.

B Եւ սուրբն Սիմէոն աղօթիւք եհան զօձն ընդ բերան կնոջն.

  • աղօտեմ, -եցի to pray, intercede
  • ելանեմ, ելի to go out
  • աղօթք, -թից (pl. tantum) prayer
  • հանեմ, հանի to draw out, remove, take away

A եւ անկեալ յերկիր սատակեցաւ։

B եւ առժամայն սատակեցաւ

  • անկանիմ, անկայ to fall
  • սատակեմ, -եցի to kill, slay, slaughter, destroy (here aor m/p 3sg)
  • առժանայն immediately, suddenly

A Եւ է՛ր չափով կանգուն մի։

B եւ էր կանգուն մի։

  • չափ, -ուց/-ոց measure, measurement, quantity, proportion
  • կանգուն, -գնոց cubit (also straight, standing, firm, stable)

ET of the APIB 1 text

While a woman was drinking water at night, a young serpent went into her belly along with the water, and it was nourished and grew in her insides and was causing the woman considerable pain. So she went to Saint Symeon and spoke of her suffering, asking him to help her, and at the praying of the saint the serpent went out through the woman’s mouth, fell to the ground, and died. In size it was one cubit.

ET of Bayan’s text

While a certain woman was drinking water at night, a young serpent entered her belly along with the water, and it was nourished in her insides and grew and was causing the woman considerable pain. So she went to the blessed [Symeon] in supplication, and with his prayer Saint Symeon drew the serpent out through the woman’s mouth, and immediately it died. It was one cubit.

Bibliography

Adontz, N. “Note sur les synaxaires arméniens.” Revue de l’Orient Chrétien 24 (1924): 211–218.

Mathews, Jr., Edward G. On this Day: The Armenian Church Synaxarion, January. Provo, 2014.

Mécérian, J. “Introduction à l’étude des synaxaires arméniens.” Bulletin Arménologique, Mélanges de l’Université de S. Joseph 43 (1953): 99–128.

Nersessian, S. Der. “Le synaxaire arménien de Grégoire VII d’Anazarbe.” Analecta Bollandiana 68 (1950): 261–285.

Gregory the Illuminator and saints-for-idols replacement   Leave a comment

Here are a few lines from today’s reading in the Armenian synaxarion (text and FT in Bayan, Aug 25, PO 5: 433). The title of the reading is:

Տօն է ամենասրբուհւոց Աստուածածնին զոր կարգեաց սուրբն Գրիգոր Լուսաւորիչ։

  • ամենասրբուհւ all-holy, very holy
  • Աստուածածնին Mother of God
  • կարգեաց aor 3sg կարգեմ, -եցի to arrange, fix, establish

The Feast of the All-Holy Mother of God, which Saint Gregory the Illuminator Established

This paragraph explains how the famous Armenian saint replaced idol-worship in Caucasia with feast-days for the saints. See similarly Agat’angełos, §§ 48ff., and on Anahit and Aramazd, see Thomson’s remarks in the introduction to his edition and translation of Agat’angełos, pp. xxxviii-xlii. (For an earlier report on Anahit among the Armenians, see Strabo 11.14.16.) Anahit is in other places identified with the Greek Artemis, but here with Aphrodite.

Gregory the Illuminator, of course, was hardly the only idol-basher in the early centuries of Christianity. For Theodosius as one, for example, see Movsēs Xorenac’i, History of the Armenians, § 3.33 (Thomson, ET, p. 286). For a general reflection, see lines 867-884 of Grigor Magistros’ poem recently edited and translated by Abraham Terian: Magnalia Dei: Biblical History in Epic Verse by Grigor Magistros, Hebrew University Armenian Studies 14 (Leuven: Peeters, 2002; ET pp. 61-62, comm. pp. 98-99, Arm. 161-162).

Սուրբ Գրիգոր Լուսաւորիչն եւ մեծ հայրապետն ամենայն Հայոց Մեծաց կործանեաց զամենայն պատկերս կռոցն եւ եբարձ զդիւապաշտութիւնն յաշխարհէս Հայոց եւ Վրաց եւ Աղուանից,

  • հայրապետ patriarch
  • կործանեաց aor 3sg կործանեմ, -եցի to overthrow, destroy
  • պատկեր, -աց statue, idol, figure, icon, image, painting (< Parthian, Middle Persian patkar; cf. Aramaic paṯkar)
  • կուռք, կռոց (pl. tantum) idol, image, statue
  • եբարձ aor 3sg բառնամ, բարձի to lift up, raise, take away, destroy (NB the ե- augment, added as usual to aorist forms that would otherwise be monosyllabic)
  • դիւապաշտութիւն idolatry (demon-/devil-worship; cf. դեւ demon, devil [Middle Persian dēw] + պաշտեմ to worship, serve)
  • Վիրք Georgians
  • Աղուանք (Caucasian) Albanians

եւ փոխանակ շինեաց եկեղեցիս յանուն սուրբ աստուածածնին Մարիամու եւ սուրբ Կարապետին Յովհաննու։

  • փոխանակ substitute, alternative, exchange (cf. փոխեմ below)
  • շինեաց aor 3sg շինեմ, -եցի to found, build, construct
  • կարապետ, -ի forerunner, precursor, guide (for կար- here cf. the Iranian root in Middle Persian kārawān “caravan” and kārdāg “traveler”)

Եւ զտօնս պղծութեանն՝ փոխեաց ի տօնս սրբութեան, զի մինչ ի կռապաշտութիւն էր աշխարհս, տօնէին այսօր Անահիտ տիկնոջն եւ կոչէին զնա ծնունդ այրոյն Արամազդայ որ է Ափրոդիտէս ըստ յունականին։

  • պղծութիւն contamination, stain, impurity, pollution
  • փոխեաց aor 3sg փոխեմ, -եցի to change, transform, displace, transfer
  • կռապաշտութիւն idolatry, idol-worship
  • տօնէին impf 3pl տօնեմ, -եցի to feast, celebrate
  • այսօր this day (also today)
  • տիկին queen, empress, princess (decl. like կին; < *տի- + կին, as տէր < *տի- + այր)
  • կոչէին impf 3pl կոչեմ, -եցի to call, name
  • ծնունդ, ծննդեան, -դոց child, offspring (also birth, origin)
  • այրոյն (presumably an aberrant form of the gen.sg of այր, the usual classical form being առն)
  • յունական Greek

English translation:

Saint Gregory, the Illuminator and great Patriarch of all Armenia, overthrew all the statues of the idols and removed demon-worship from the land of the Armenians, Georgians, and Albanians, and as a substitute he founded churches in the name of the holy Mother of God, Mary, and the holy forerunner, John [the Baptist], and he changed the feasts of impurity to feasts of holiness. [The feast is today] because while the land was in idol-worship, on this day [Aug 25] they would celebrate Lady Anahit and they would call her the offspring of her husband Aramazd; she was Aphrodite among the Greeks.

(Thanks to Ed Mathews for discussing այրոյն with me.)

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 63 (Lucian & the relics of Stephen Protomartyr)   Leave a comment

Today’s passage comes from a Georgian version of Lucian’s account of the finding (invention) of the bones of Stephen Protomartyr. It was published, with FT, by Nikolay Marr in PO 19 (cf. BHO 1087-1088 for Syriac [GT by Ryssel here], CPA, Armenian; BHG 1648x and foll.). The passage shows some ecclesiastical vocabulary, the indirect verb ძილი (to sleep), and a form of დება (here with the preverb შთა-), the Series II stem of which is დვ-.

At the beginning (p. 657), Lucian addresses his readers in humble language often seen in colophons and elsewhere. Marr’s edition includes a plate of the Iviron-Athos manuscript, which contains this part (in nusxuri):

from_iviron_plate_in_po19ლუკიანე საწყალობელი და უნარჩევესი ყოველთაჲ ოჳფლისა მიერ გიკითხავ (ed., p. 657)

  • საწყალობელი miserable, lamentable, woeful
  • უნარჩევესი worst, lowest
  • ოჳფლისა მიერ Cf. Rom 16:22 AB გიკითხავ თქუენ მე…უფლისა მიერ (ἀσπάζομαι ὑμᾶς ἐγὼ…ἐν κυρίῳ), and the beginning of Epiphanius, On Gems/De gemmis (from the Šatberd codex, ed. Gigineišvili and Giunašvili, at TITUS here), უფალსა ჩემსა, პატიოსანსა ძმასა და საქმის თანაზიარსა თევდორეს კეთილად მსახურსა ეპისკოპოსსა ეპიფანე ეპისკოპოსი უფლისა მიერ გიკითხავ (cf. Blake’s ed., p. 3, ET p. 99).
  • გ-ი-კითხავ pres 1sg O2 კითხვა to greet (also to ask)

I, the lamentable Lucian, the worst of all [people], greet you in the Lord.

And now our main sentence (p. 658):

მეძინა მე ვითარცა წინაჲთ ჩუეულებასა ჩემსა განშორებულსა მას სახლსა სანათლოჲსასა: სადა იგი დგა კიდობანი რომელსა იგი შთადვიან სამსახურებელი ეკლესიისაჲ

  • მ-ე-ძინ-ა aor 3sg O1 (indir. verb) ძილი to sleep
  • წინაჲთ earlier
  • ჩუეულებაჲ custom, usual activity
  • განშორებული distant, far
  • სახლი სანათლოჲსა house/place of light/baptism (სანათლოჲ light-, baptism-) (for “light” cf. φωτιστήριον; Arm. is մկրտատուն, with -տուն house)
  • დგ-ა aor 3sg დგომა to stand, be
  • კიდობანი box, basket, chest, coffer
  • შთა-დვ-ი-ან aor iter 3pl შთადება to put in
  • სამსახურებელი service-thing(s), vessel

I slept, as had been my prior custom, in the far baptistery, where the chest was in which they would put the church’s service vessels.

…je m’endormis, comme j’étais accoutumé auparavant, dans le baptistère éloigné, où se trouvait le coffre dans lequel on met les ustensiles d’église…

An Armenian saint-loving saint for August 13: Grigor Vkayasēr (Martyrophile)   Leave a comment

Celebrated on 3 Navasard/13 August is Grigor Vkayasēr/Martyrophile/Martyr-lover, so here are a few lines on him from Bayan’s edition of the synaxarion, along with vocabulary and grammar notes and an English translation. This Grigor was consecrated Catholicos in 1065, but held the office only briefly, preferring to dedicate his life instead to study, travel, and translation. For a few works on Grigor, see R.W. Thomson, A Bibliography of Classical Armenian Literature to 1500 AD, Corpus Christianorum (Turnhout, 1995), p. 136, and the “Supplement,” Le Muséon 120 (2007): 190.

Bayan’s Armenian text and French translation are in PO 5. The page numbers from which these lines come are indicated below.

page 364

Գրիգորիոս Վկայասէրն որդի էր Գրիգորի Մագիստրոսի եւ էր անուն նորա ի ծնողացն Վահրամ որ է անձրեւ։

  • ծնող, -աց parent, father, mother
  • անձրեւ, -ի, -ոյ, -աց rain
  • Վահրամ On this common name, see F. Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch (Marburg, 1895), 361-365. For what it’s worth, “rain” in Middle Persian is wārān (NP bārān). (Generally on Iranian names in Armenian, see R. Schmitt in Encyclopaedia Iranica here.)

Gregory the Martyr-lover was the son of Gregory Magistros, and his name [as given] by his parents was Vahram, which means [lit. is] rain.

Grégoire le Martyrophile était le fils de Grégoire Magistros, le nom que ses parents lui avait donné était Vahram, c’est-à-dire pluie.

*************************

Եւ իբրեւ ձեռնադրեցաւ կաթողիկոս անուանեցաւ Գրիգորիս որ է հսկող եւ արթուն…

  • ձեռնադրեցաւ aor m/p 3sg ձեռնադրեմ, -եցի to ordain
  • անուանեցաւ aor m/p 3sg անուանեմ, -եցի to name, call
  • հսկող nomen agentis (Meillet, Altarm. Elementarbuch, § 31b) հսկեմ, -եցի to watch, stay awake, keep vigil
  • արթուն, -թնոց watchful, vigilant

And when he was ordained Catholicos, he was called Gregory, which meant [lit. was] vigilant and watcher…

Lorsqu’il fut sacré Catholicos, il prit le nom de Grigoris, qui signifie éveillé, vigilant…

*************************

page 365

եւ զի էր սիրող վկայից Քրիստոսի, մեծարէր եւ առնէր զյիշատակս նոցա անխափան

  • սիրող nomen agentis սիրեմ, -եցի to love
  • մեծարէր impf 3sg մեծարեմ, -եցի to respect, honor, venerate
  • առնէր impf 3sg առբեմ, արարի to make, do
  • անխափան without ceasing, continually

And since he was a lover of the martyrs of Christ, he would honor and commemorate them continually,

Comme il aimait les martyrs du Christ, il les honorait et célébrait incessamment leur mémoire;

*************************

եւ կարգէր տօնից նոցա գիրս մարգարէականս եւ առաքելականս եւ աւետարանս խորհրդաւորս։

  • կարգէր impf 3sg կարգեմ, -եցի to arrange, fix, assign, establish, institute
  • տօն, -ից feast, celebration
  • գիր, գրոց writing, letter(s), book, literature
  • մարգարէական prophetic (մարգարէ, -ից prophet)
  • առաքելական apostolic (առաքել, -ելոց apostle, emissary)
  • աւետարան, -աց Gospel
  • խորհրդաւոր mysterious, symbolic (խորհուրդ, -հրդեան/-դի, -հրդոց mystery, symbol, sacrament, thought, imagination, idea, counsel)

and he would arrange the [readings of] the mystery-laden prophetic, apostolic, and Gospel writings for their feast-days.

il institua pour leurs jours de fête, des lectures des prophètes, des apôtres et de l’évangile, bien appropriés.

*************************

Կամեցաւ գնալ ի Կոստանտդինուպօլիս զի թարգմանեսցէ զպատմութիւնս սրբոցն եւ զճառս ներբողականս, որ ոչ գտանիւր առ մեզ հայ լեզուով եւ գրով։

  • կամեցաւ aor 3sg կամիմ, -եցայ to will, intend
  • գնալ inf գնամ, -ացի to go
  • թարգմանեսցէ aor subj 3sg թարգմանեմ, -եցի to translate
  • պատմութիւն history, tale, account, narration
  • ճառ, -ից discourse, sermon, treatise, homily
  • ներբողական panegyric, eulogistic (ներբողեմ, -եցի to eulogize, praise)
  • գտանիւր impf p 3sg (post-classical: see Meillet, §105b) գտանեմ, գտի (aor 3sg եգիտ) to find
  • լեզու, -ի/-ոյ, -աց language, tongue

He wished to go to Constantinople that he might translate the stories of the saints and eulogistic discourses which were not found among us in Armenian language and writing.

Il voulut se rendre à Constantinople pour y traduire les des saints et les homélies qui ne se trouvaient point chez nous en langue et caractères arméniens.

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 60: Paul’s appearance   Leave a comment

Today’s installment of OGPS again comes from a sighting in Sarjvelaże-Fänrich, here 1466b, s.v. ცხჳრგრძელი “langnasig” (also at 1487b, s.v. წარბკიცული “mit zusammengewachsenen Augenbrauen”). The sentence — about Ananias’ seeing Paul (cf. Acts 9)? — is cited from N. Goguaże, ძველი მეტაფრასული კრებულები (სექტემბრის საკოთხავები), (Old Metaphrastic Collections), Tbilisi, 1986, 404.20. (I don’t have access to this text otherwise, so I have only read the sentence below out of context.)

იხილა რაჲ მომავალად პავლე, კაცი, ვითარ-იგი სიტყუამან გამოუსახა მას: მცირე ჰასაკითა, მტიერი თავითა, კირდრეკილ, ცხჳრგრძელ, წარბკიცულ

Er sah den Pawle herankommen, einen Mann, wie das Wort ihn ihm dargestellt hatte: klein von Wuchs, kahl auf dem Kopf, krummbeinig, langnasig, mit zusammengewachsenen Augenbrauen.

  • გამო-უ-სახ-ა aor 3sg გამოსახვა to express, describe, depict
  • ჰასაკი size, stature, body, age
  • მტიერი bald
  • კირდრეკილი bow-legged
  • ცხჳრგრძელი with a long nose (ცხჳრი nose)
  • წარბკიცული with close-knit eyebrows

He saw Paul as he was approaching: a man, as the word had depicted to him, small in statue, bald-headed, bow-legged, long-nosed, with close-knit eyebrows.

I’m sure there are others (I’ve not managed to easily locate the passage above in the Greek Metaphrastes), but for comparison, there is another description of Paul’s appearance from a Greek synaxarion, June 29 (ed. Delehaye, cols. 779-780).

UPDATE (16 Sept 2015): Goguaże’s ed. now available at TITUS here.

Stones, beetles, or both? The transmogrification of the shepherd that Barbara cursed   Leave a comment

I have previously discussed an episode in the Syriac version of the story of Barbara in which a shepherd and his flock are mutated into beetles. As I mentioned there, in the Greek version, the sheep become beetles (κανθαρίδες), but the shepherd himself becomes a stone (λίθος). I also noted that the synaxarion texts in Arabic and Gǝʿǝz lack this episode entirely. Since then I have looked at two other sources: an Arabic version from a manuscript I cataloged, and the Armenian version in Vark’ ew vkayabanut’iwnk’ srboc’, vol. 2, and here is what I have found.

The Armenian text appears in Vark’ 2, two lines from the bottom of p. 358 to p. 359, line 13 (see here). The text, with a few notes on vocabulary and grammar and an English translation, follow:

Եւ սուրբն Վառվառ ելեալ փախչէր յերեսաց հօրն իւրոյ։

ելեալ ptcp ելանեմ, ելի to go out | փախչէր impf 3sg պախչեմ, -խեայ to flee  | երես, -աց face

Իսկ հայրն իբրեւ զարիւնարդու գազան՝ ելեալ [p. 359] վարէր զհետ նորա.

արիւնարդու bloodthirsty, bloodsucking | գազան, -աց beast, animal | վարէր impf 3sg վարիմ, -եցայ to conduct oneself, act, go (m/p of վարեմ, -եցի to direct, guide, manage, lead, use) | զհետ after (< հետ, -ոյ, -ք, -տոց footprint, step, track)

եւ ել ի լեառն եւ խնդրէր զերանելին Վառվառ. եւ ահա տեսանէր ի լերինն հովիւս երկուս զի արածէին զհօտս իւրեանց. եւ հարցանէր ցնոսա եթէ արդեօք տեսեալ իցեն զնա։

ել aor 3sg ելանեմ, ելի to go out | խնդրեմ, -եցի to search for, pursue, wish | լեառն, լերանց mountain | արածեմ, -եցի to tend (herd), cause to graze | հօտ, -ից flock, herd | հարցանեմ, հարցի to ask, question | արդեօք perhaps | իցեմ subj pres 3pl եմ to be

Իսկ միւսն ի նոցանէ կամեցաւ ստել վասն նորա զի մի ի բուռն անկցի սուրբն եւ սպանցի, եւ երդնոյր նմա եթէ ոչ եւս գիտեմ զնա թէ ուր իցէ, եւ ոչ տեսեալ իցեմ զնա։

կամին, -եցայ to want, intend | ստել to lie | բուռն, բռանց fist, hand, violence, force | անկցի aor subj 3sg անկանիմ, անկաւ to fall | սպանցի aor m/p subj 3sg սպանանեմ, սպանի to kill, slay, slaughter, etc. | երդնույր impf 3sg երդնում, երդւայ to swear | եւս still | գիտեմ, գիտացի to know | ուր where | իցէ pres subj 3sg եմ to be | իցեմ pres subj 1sg եմ to be

Իսկ ընկեր նորին ակնարկեալ եւ նշանացի սկսաւ ցուցանել նմա զաղախինն Քրիստոսի։

ընկեր, -աց companion | ակնարկեալ ptcp ակնարկեմ, -եցի to indicate, show | նշանեմ, -եցի to sign, mark, make a sign (նշան, -աց sign) | սկսաւ aor 3sg սկսանիմ to begin | ցուցանեմ, ցուցի to show, point out | աղախին, -ոց/-աց maidservant

Զորս եւ անիծեալ սրբոյն՝ զանօրէն հովիւն զայս, եւ առժամայն մածեալ արձանացաւ հանդերձ ոչխարօքն, որպէս զկինն Ղովտայ. եւ կայ մինչեւ ցայսօր նովին կերպարանաւ, կան քարացեալ ի նմին տեղւոջ ի ցոյցս տեսողաց։

անիծեալ ptcp անիծանեմ, անիծի to curse | անօրէն unjust, wicked | առժամայն immediately | մածեալ ptcp մածանիմ, մածայ to be glued, adhere, coagulate, congeal, join, unite | արձանացաւ aor 3sg արձանանամ, -ացայ to become like a statue, to be fixed  | հանդերձ with, together with (also -ից clothes) | ոչխար, -աց sheep (cf. Geo. ცხოვარი/ცხუარი sheep [see Ačaṙean, vol. 3, 562b]) | կին woman, wife | կայ pres 3sg կամ, կացի to remain, be, stand | նովին inst.sg նոյն that (same), self, he/she/it | կերպարան, ի (also pl) form, face, look, appearance, image | կան pres 3pl կամ, կացի to be, exist, live, remain, stand | քարացեալ ptcp քարացուցանեմ to turn into stone | ցոյց, ցուցից showing, index, sign, testimony, indicator, proof | տեսող seer, spectator

A rough ET:

Saint Barbara, having gone out, was fleeing from her father, but he, like a bloodthirsty animal, was pursuing her. And he went out to the mountain and searched for the blessed Barbara, and just then he saw on the mountain two shepherds, who were tending their flocks, and he was asking them whether they might have seen her. One of them wanted to lie for her, lest the saint fall violently and be killed, and he swore to him, “I don’t know at all where she might be, nor will I be able to spot her.” But his companion began to indicate and make signs so as to point out Christ’s handmaid. The saint, then, having cursed him, (namely) this wicked shepherd, and he immediately having coagulated, he, together with the sheep, became like a statue, like Lot’s wife, and it remains to this day in that very form: they remain petrified in the same place for a sign to those who see it.

The Arabic (Garšūnī) copy I have read is in CFMM 306, with this episode at ff. 57v10-58r7. Here is the image:

CFMM 306, ff. 57v-58r

CFMM 306, ff. 57v-58r (pp. 102-103)

And a rough ET:

And when her wicked father realized that she had gotten the better of him by the power of her great Lord, he made a thorough search for her and went up the mountain after her. That mountain was enough for two [shepherds] to tend sheep, and he asked them about her. One of them swore that he had not seen her. Satan entered the heart of the other as he had entered the heart of Judas, who handed Christ over to the Jews: thus [the second shepherd] handed the chaste woman into her father’s hand. Then she lifted her gaze toward that shepherd who had pointed her out to her father and she cursed him, and he and his flock became black rocks, [remaining so] to this very day.

So we have now seen this part of the tale in Greek, Syriac, Armenian, and Arabic. Here is a chart showing what happens to the cursed shepherd and his sheep in these versions:

shepherd sheep
Greek stone beetle
Syriac beetle beetle
Arabic stone stone
Armenian stone stone

This data is of course not based on a complete examination of surviving sources for this story, not even for the languages included here. In all likelihood a more thorough investigation would reveal even more variety across the versions of this text, as well as some clues as to when and whence the different metamorphoses manifest in these texts.

Procopius’ pre-martyrdom prayer (Armenian)   Leave a comment

Commemorated on July 8 is the saint Procopius (BHG 1576-1582; BHO 1002-1003). As an exercise for students of Armenian, here is the prayer he is made to utter just before he is decapitated. (Rough English translation at the end.) It contains many imperative forms (addressed to God) and several participles. Most of the vocabulary is fairly common, but I have been liberal in those I have included in the notes below. The text is available from an Armenian synaxarion in PO 21: 688-689. (Stylistically, note the placement of the imperatives: partly at the end of each main clause, partly at the beginning.)

Եւ յորժամ տանէին ի տեղին տարածեաց զձերս իւր յերկինս եւ ասէ. Տէր Աստուած իմ արարիչ երկնի եւ երկրի, հայր Տեառն մերոյ Յիսուսի Քրիստոսի, լո՛ւր աղաչանաց իմոց եւ կատարեա՛ զխնդրուածս իմ։

  • տանէին impf 3pl տանիմ, տարայ to carry away, lead away, bring
  • տարածեաց aor 3sg տարածեմ, տարածեցի to spread, stretch out
  • արարիչ creator
  • լո՛ւր impv 2sg լսեմ, լուայ to hear
  • աղաչանք prayer (pl. tantum)
  • կատարեա՛ impv 2sg կատարեմ, -եցի to accomplish, fulfill
  • խնդրուածք, -ծաց/-ծոց prayer, request (pl. tantum)

Պահեա՛ զքաղաքս զայս եւ սրբեա՛ ի կռապաշտութենէ,

  • պահեմ, -եցի to preserve, keep, watch over
  • սրբեմ, -եցի to sanctify, purify
  • կռապաշտութիւն idolatry

յիշեա եւ զամենայն ժողովուրդս քո եւ սրբեա՛ ի կռապաշտութենէ,

  • յիշեմ, -եցի to bear in mind, remember
  • ժողուորդ, -վդեան, -վրդոց people, assembly

եւ բժշկեա՛ զամենայն հիւանդութիւնս նոցա։

  • բժշկեմ, -եցի to cure
  • հիւանդութիւն illness, infirmity

Նեղելոց անդորրիչ լե՛ր,

  • նեղելոց ptcp gen.pl նեղիմ, -եցայ to be afflicted, troubled
  • անդորրիչ quieting, calming, comforting
  • լե՛ր impv 2sg լինիմ, եղէ to be

որբոց եւ այրեաց օգնական,

  • որբ, -ոց orphan
  • այրի, -րեաց widow
  • օգնական aid(ing), help(er)

եւ որոց ի բանդին այցելու,

  • բանդ/տ, -ից prison
  • այցելու, ,-ուի, -աց visitor

զնաւակոծեալս ի ծովու խաղաղութեամբ հասո՛ ի նաւահանգիստն,

  • նաւակոծեալս ptcp acc.pl. նաւակոցիմ to suffer shipwreck
  • խաղաղութիւն peace
  • հասո՛ impv 2sg հասուցանեմ, հասուցի to cause to reach, bring to (caus. of հասանեմ, հասի to arrive at, reach, the impv 2sg of which is հա՛ս)
  • նաւահանգիստ port, haven

ճանապարհորդաց ուղեկից, փախուցելոց ի բռնաւորաց ապաւէն,

  • ճանապարհորդ traveler, wayfarer
  • ուղեկից fellow traveler
  • փախուցանեմ, -եցի to put to flight, cause to flee
  • բռնաւոր violent; usurper, tyrant
  • ապաւէն, -ւինի, -նաց asylum, refuge

զիտանգեալսն ի ծառայութենէ ազատեա՛,

  • վտանգիմ, -եցայ to be in danger, peril, etc.
  • ծառայութիւն slavery, captivity
  • ազատեմ, -եցի to free, liberate, save

զդեւս ի մարդկանէ հալածեա՛,

  • մարդիկ, gen.sg. մարդկան humanity, the human race, people
  • հալծեմ, -եցի to expel, cast out, persecute, chase

զգլորեալսն կանգնեա՛,

  • գլորիմ, -եցայ to sink, fall
  • կանգնեմ, -եցի to raise, lift up, re-establish

զմոլորեալսն դարձո՛,

  • մոլորիմ, -եցայ to wander, go astray, err
  • դարձո՛ impv 2sg դարձուցանեմ, -ուցի to return, restore, bring back

մեղաւորաց թողութիւն շնորհեա՛,

  • մեղաւոր sinful, sinner
  • թողութիւն forgiveness, release
  • շնորհեմ, -եցի to give, grant, forgive

զսատանայական խորհուրդս խափանեա՛,

  • խորհուրդ, -ոց thought, intention
  • խափանեմ, -եցի to hinder, impede, intercept

բա՛ց զարքայութիւնդ քո ամենայն հաւատացելոց քոց,

  • բա՛ց open
  • հաւատամ, -տացի to believe

եւ որոց յանուն իմ եկեղեցի շինեն կամ յոսկերաց իմոց մասն առնուցուն, կամ զիշատակս իմ կատարեն,

  • շինեն, -եցի to found, built, construct
  • ոսկր, -աց bone
  • մասն, -սին, -սանց part, piece, relic
  • առնուցուն pres subj 3pl առնում, առի to take
  • յիշատակ, -աց commemoration, remembrance

պարգեւեա՛ նոցա զքո անբաւ ողորմութիւնդ,

  • պարգեւեմ, -եցի to give, present with
  • անբաւ, -ից infinite, innumerable
  • ողորմութիւն pity, mercy

եւ մի՛ եկեսցէ ի վերայ նոցա սատանայական փորձութիւնք,

  • եկեսցէ aor subj 3sg գամ, եկի to come
  • փորձութիւն temptation

եւ մի՛ բռնութիւնք ի թշնամեաց եւ յիշխանաց,

  • բռնութիւն violence, tyranny, assault
  • թշնամի, -նւոյ, -մեաց enemy, foe
  • իշխան, -աց sovereign, magistrate, ruler, governor

եւ ընկա՛լ զհոգիս իմ խաղաղութեամբ։

  • ընկա՛լ impv 2sg ընդունիմ, ընկալայ to receive

An English translation:

And as they were bringing him to the place [of his martyrdom], he spread his hands to heaven and said: Lord, my God, creator of heaven and earth, father of our Lord Jesus Christ, hear and fulfill my request. Watch over this city and cleanse it of idolatry. Remember, too, all your people: cleanse [them] of idolatry and cure every infirmity. Be a comforter to the afflicted, a helper to orphans and widows, a visitor to those in prison. Bring those who have suffered shipwreck on the sea to the haven in peace. [Be] a fellow traveler to wayfarers, a refuge to those put to flight by the violent. Free those in peril in slavery. Cast out demons from humanity. Raise up the fallen. Bring back those who are astray. Grant forgiveness to sinners. Impede satanic intentions. Open your kingdom to all who believe in you, those who will build a church in my name, take up the relics of my bones, or celebrate my commemoration. Grant them your infinite mercy. Do not let satanic temptation come upon them, nor violence from foes or magistrates. And receive my spirit in peace.

From the Armenian synaxarion: Vardeni (May 5)   Leave a comment

Hagiography makes excellent reading material for language learners: the stories are entertaining (the more outlandish the better), sentence structures are usually simple, vocabulary is common in the main, and in many cases one can read the story in more than one language or version. Hagiography is meaningful, of course, for other reasons, too. Some readers find spiritual value and encouragement in the stories. Those with a critical focus may explore the historicity or lack thereof in certain stories, and whether or not even a single event can be deemed to have taken place, the fact that the story was told, heard, and written down in any case says something about the tellers, hearers, writers, and readers of these tales. In the story below, that of Saint Vardeni, about whom I know nothing more than what is in this synaxarial commemoration, there is such material ripe for discussion by those interested in gender, authority, religious violence (in this case, self-violence), and more. As a textual basis for such discussion, here is the text, with vocabulary and grammar notes especially suited toward Armenian language learners. As far as I know, no English translation of this story has appeared, so I also offer a rough draft of a translation, both for Armenian language learners and for those less interested in Armenian but interested in this story for some reason or another. (The text, notes, and translation are available in a more aesthetically pleasing format in PDF here: vardeni_armen_synax.)

The story and the saint’s behavior probably have in view “If thy right eye offend thee…” (Mt 5:29-30), and further “whosoever shall offend one of these little ones that believe in me, it is better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the sea” (Mk 9:42 with parallels). Although the details differ greatly, other self-blinding stories come to mind. In hagiography, there is that of Simon the Tanner; outside hagiography, and much more famously, there is that of Oedipus.

Χο. ὦ δεινὰ δράσας, πῶς ἔτλης τοιαῦτα σὰς

ὄψεις μαρᾶναι; τίς σ᾽ ἐπῆρε δαιμόνων;

Οι. Ἀπόλλων τάδ᾽ ἦν, Ἀπόλλων, φίλοι,

ὁ κακὰ κακὰ τελῶν ἐμὰ τάδ᾽ ἐμὰ πάθεα.

ἔπαισε δ᾽ αὐτόχειρ νιν οὔ-

τις, ἀλλ᾽ ἐγὼ τλάμων.

τί γὰρ ἔδει μ᾽ ὁρᾶν,

ὅτῳ γ᾽ ὁρῶντι μηδὲν ἦν ἰδεῖν γλυκύ;

Soph. Oed.Tyr. 1327-1335

The commemoration of Vardeni (Armenian text and FT) is available in PO 21 395-396.

Յայսմ աւուր տօն է աղախնոյն Աստուծոյ Վարդենայ։

տօն, -ից feast, celebration | աղախին, -խնոյ, -նաց maidservant, female slave

Աղախինն Քրիստոսի եւ կոյս կրօնաւորն Վարդենի՝ նստելով ի յարկս իւր լռութեամբ եւ մեծաւ ճգնութեամբ հոգայր զհոգի իւր պահօք եւ աղօթիւք եւ տքնութեամբ։

կոյս, կուսից virgin | կրօնաւոր monk, cenobite | նստելով inf.instr նստիմ, նստայ, նիստ to sit down, lodge, reside, dwell | յարկ, -աց home, house, shelter (also roof, ceiling, story) | լռութիւն silence, tranquility | ճգնութիւն austerity, asceticism, penitence, mortification | հոգայր impf 3sg հոգամ, -ացայ/-ացի to take care of, preserve, mind | պահք, -հոց fast(ing) | աղօթ, -թից prayer | տքնութիւն wakefulness, vigilance, watch

Նա եւ ի ձեռագործէն իւրմէ բազում ողորմութիւն առնէր առ կարօտեալս։

ողորմութիւն charity, alms, mercy | առնէր impf 3sg առնեմ, արարի to do | կարօտեալ poor, needy

Այլ որ ի սկզբանէ թշնամի է արդարութեան հակառակն սատանայ ոչ ժուժեաց ընդ այնպիսի աստուածահաճոյ վարս, յարոյց ի վերայ նորա փորձութիւն, եւ ընկէց յերիտասարդ մի դիւական տռփութեան փափաք եւ սիրէր զանարատ կոյսն Վարդենի։

թշնամի, -մւոյ, -մեաց enemy, foe | արդարութիւն justice, equity, uprightness | հակառակ, -աց adversary, hostile, opponent | ժուժեաց aor 3sg ժուժեմ, -եցի to tolerate | աստուածահաճոյ god-pleasing | վարք, -րուց life, conduct, behavior | յարոյց aor 3sg յարուցանեմ, -ուցի to raise up (caus./factit. of յառնեմ յարեայ to rise, get up; on such verbs see Meillet, Altarm. Elementarbuch, § 109) | փորձութիւն temptation | ընկէց (= ընկեաց) aor 3sg ընկենում, -եցի to throw, cast, put | երիտասարդ, -աց young man | դիւական diabolic, demonic (< դեւ, դիւաց demon, devil, spirit; cf. Geo დევი, Syr daywā; all from Iranian, cf. MP dēw demon, devil; NB also dēwānag demonic) | տռփութիւն lust, burning desire | փափաք, -անք desire, wish, longing | սիրէր impf 3sg սիրեմ, -եցի to love | անարատ immaculate, innocent, pure

Եւ յորժամ ելանէր ի տանէն զի երթիցէ յեկեղեցին՝ ի ճանապարհին յոյժ նեղէր զնա եւ խօսէր ընդ նմա բանս փափաքանաց.

ելանէր impf 3sg ելանեմ, ելի to go out, go forth | տանէ abl.sg տուն, տանց house | երթիցէ aor subj 3sg երթամ, չոգայ to go (this verb is suppletive only in the aor ind, not subj; see Meillet, § 177b) | ճանապարհ, -աց way, road, street | յոյժ very, much, considerably | նեղէր impf 3sg նեղեմ, -եցի to press, trouble, annoy, harass | խօսէր impf 3sg խօսիմ, -եցայ to speak, talk | փափաքան of desire, of longing (< փափաք, see above)

եւ յղէր պատգամաւորս բազում խոստմամբ, այսպէս առնէր ի բազում աւուրս։

յղէր impf 3sg յղեմ, -եցի to send, dispatch | պատգամաւոր messenger | խոստումն promise, offer, declaration | այսպէս thus, so, in this manner | աւր, աւուրց day

Եւ ի միում աւուր երանելի կոյսն առաքեաց զաղախինն իւր եւ կոչեաց զերիտասարդն ի տուն իւր. եւ նա խնդայր եւ երթայր ուրախութեամբ, կարծէր եթէ հասցէ ցանկութեանն իւրում։

միում dat/loc.sg մի one | աւուր gen/dat/loc.sg աւր day | երանելի blessed | առաքեաց aor 3sg առաքեմ, -եցի to send, dispatch | կոչեաց aor 3sg կոչեմ, -եցի to call, invite | խնդայր impf 3sg խնդամ, -ացի to rejoice | երթայր impf 3sg երթամ, չոգայ to go | ուրախութիւն rejoicing, joy, pleasure | կարծէր impf 3sg կարծեմ, -եցի to believe, think | հասցէ aor subj 3sg հասանեմ, հասի to reach, arrive | ցանկութիւն desire, pleasure, lust

Եւ յորժամ եկն Վարդենի նստեալ էր յոստայնն իւր եւ գործէր, եւ ասէ ցայրն.

եկն aor 3sg գամ, եկի to come | ոստայն, -ից texture, web, weft (weaving) | գործէր impf 3sg գործեմ, -եցի to work, make, do, fashion | ասէ pres 3sg ասեմ, ասացի to say

Բարի եկիր տէր եղբայր. ընդէ՞ր նեղես զիս եւ չտաս թոյլ երթալ յեկեղեցին ի տանէս իմէ։

եկիր aor 2sg գամ, եկի to come | ընդէ՞ր why? | նեղես pres 2sg նեղեմ, -եցի to press, trouble, annoy, harass | չտաս neg չ- + տաս pres 2sg տամ, ետու to give grant | թոյլ տամ to give leave, permit

Ասէ զնա այրն. Յոյժ ցանկամ քեզ, եւ յորժամ հայիմ ի քեզ՝ ցանկութիւնն որպէս հուր բորբոքի ի սիրտս։

ցանկամ, -ացայ to desire, long for, covet | հայիմ, -եցայ to see, look upon | բորբոք heat, fervor | սիրտ, սրտից heart

Ասէ կոյսն. Եւ զի՞նչ բարի տեսանես յիս՝ զի այնչափ սիրես զիս։

տեսանես pres 2sg տեսանեմ, տեսի to see | այնչապ so much | սիրես pres 2sg սիրեմ, -եցի to love

Եւ ասէ այրն. Աչք քո գայթակղեցուցանեն զիս եւ բորբոքիմ ցանկալ քեզ։

աչք, աչաց eyes (pl. tantum) | գայթակղեցուցանեն pres 3pl գայթակղեցուցանեմ, -ուցի to trip, cause to stumble (caus./factit. of գայթագղիմ/գայթակղիմ to stumble) | բորբոքիմ pres pass 1sg բորբոքեմ, -եցի to kindle, heat, burn

Եւ յորժամ լուաւ Վարդենի եթէ աչքն խաբեն զերիտասարդն, մինչդեռ ի ձեռին ունէր զբարաբն ոստայնին՝ եհար զաչսն իւր եւ կուրացոյց զերկոսեանն, եւ հեղան իբրեւ զջուր երկու բիբք աչացն, եւ անկաւ ի վերայ երեսացն։

լուաւ aor 3sg լսեմ, լուայ to hear | խաբեն pres 3pl խաբեմ, -եցի to cheat, deceive, ensnare, mislead | մինչդեռ when, while | ունէր impf 3sg ունիմ, կալայ to have, hold | բարաբ shuttle | եհար aor 3sg հարկանեմ, հարի to beat, strike (also հարում, հարի) | կուրացոյց aor 3sg կուրացուցանեմ, կուրացուցի to blind (caus./factit. of կուրանամ, -ացի to b/c blind) | երկոսեան acc of երկոքեան both (cf. Meillet, § 81) | հեղան aor m/p 3pl հեղում, հեղի to pour | բիբ, բբի, բբաց pupil (cf. Syr bābtā) | անկաւ aor 3sg անկանիմ, անկայ to fall | երես, -ի, երեսք, երեսաց face

Եւ տեսեալ երիտասարդին զոր արար երանելի կոյսն վասն իւր՝ զահի հարաւ եւ զղջացաւ ի միտս իւր, հրաժարեաց եւ գնաց առ անապատաւոր ծերսն եւ եղեւ ընտիր կրօնաւոր հաճոյ Քրիստոսի։

տեսեալ ptcp տեսանեմ, տեսի to see | արար aor 3sg առնեմ, արարի to do | ահ, ահից fear, terror | հարաւ aor m/p 3sg հարկանեմ, հարի to beat, strike (also հարում, հարի) | զղջացաւ aor m/p 3sg զղջամ, -ացի to repent | միտ, մտի, զմտաւ, միտք, մտաց, մտօք mind, intellect, understanding | հրաժարեաց aor 3sg հրաժարեմ, -եցի to renounce, abstain, desist | գնաց aor 3sg գնամ, գնացի to go | անապատաւոր solitary, hermit, anchorite (< անապատ, -ից/-աց desert) | ծեր, -ոց old, aged, elder | եղեւ aor 3sg եղանիմ to become | ընտիր, ընտրոց/ընտրից worthy, fine, good | հաճոյ, ից aggreable, pleasant; grateful

Իսկ երանելի կոյսն Վարդենի՝ խաւարեալ աչօք՝ այնչափ խիստ կրօնաւորութեամբ հաճոյ եղեւ Աստուծոյ մինչ զի զմահ նորա հրեշտակ Աստուծոյ ազդեաց հարցն յանապատի, զոր երթեալ թաղեցին ի տապանի սաղմոսիւք եւ օրհնութեամբ։

խաւարեալ ptcp (here w/ pass sense) խաւարեմ, -եցի to blind | խիստ, խստից/խստաց hard, severe, strict, austere | կրօնաւորութիւն monastic life, religion, piety | մահ, -ուց death | հրեշտակ, -աց angel (cf. Man.Parth frēštag, MP frēstak [NP firišta]: apostle, messenger, angel) | ազդեաց aor 3sg ազդեմ, -եցի to announce; influence | հարց gen/dat/abl pl հայր father | թաղեցին aor 3pl թաղեմ, -եցի to bury | տապան, -աց large box, coffin, tomb (also Noah’s ark) | օրհնութիւն blessing, benediction, hymn, eulogy

Եւ բազում սքանչելիք եղեն յաւուր հանգստեան նորա։

սքանչելի admirable, wonderful, astonishing, miraculous | եղեն aor 3pl եղանիմ to become | հանգիստ, հանգստեան repose

ET draft

On this day is the feast of God’s maidservant Vardeni.

The maidservant of Christ and the virgin nun Vardeni, by means of dwelling at her home in silence and great asceticism was preserving her soul with fasting, prayer, and wakefulness. From her handiwork she also performed much charity for the poor. But the one who was a foe from the beginning, Satan, hostile to uprightness, did not tolerate such a god-pleasing life: he raised up a temptation against her and put a demonic longing desire into a young man, and he was in love with Vardeni, the pure virgin. And when she would leave her house to go to church, he would harass her a lot on the road and express his desire to her. So he kept sending many messengers with a promise; this he did over several days. One day the blessed virgin dispatched her maidservant and invited the young man to her house, and he was very happy and started out in delight, thinking that he would fulfill his lust. When he had come, Vardeni was seated at work at her weaving, and she said to the man, “Welcome, sir, brother! Why do you harass me and not permit me to go from my home to church?” The man said to her, “I long for you deeply, and when I look upon you, this longing is like a fire burning in my heart!” The virgin said, “And what good thing do you see in me that you love me so much?” The man said, “Your eyes make me stumble, and longing for you is kindled in me.” When Vardeni heard that her eyes had ensnared the young man, she was holding at the time in her hand the shuttle for her weaving: she struck her eyes and blinded them both. The two pupils of her eyes flowed like water, and she fell on her face. The young man, when he saw what the blessed virgin had done because of him, was struck with terror and repented in his mind: he renounced [the world] and went to the old men of the desert and became a worthy monk, pleasing to Christ. As for the blessed virgin Vardeni, with blinded eyes, she became pleasing to God with piety so severe that the angel of God announced her death to the fathers in the desert: they buried her in a tomb [or coffin] with psalms and a benediction, and many astonishing things happened on the day of her repose.

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 50 (Mart. ʿAbd al-Masīḥ 22.1-3)   Leave a comment

Not too long ago I pointed to a place in a Christian Palestinian Aramaic text translated from Greek where there was a conspicuous confluence of languages (see here). Here is a similar place in a Georgian hagiographic text translated from the Armenian version of a Syriac text, referring to a name in Arabic, that of the saint, ʿAbd al-Masīḥ.

Gérard Garitte published the Georgian text with a Latin translation in “La passion géorgienne de Saint ʿAbd al-Masīḥ,” Le Muséon 79 (1966): 187–237. If you wish to compare the Georgian with other versions of this text, here is the information: The Syriac was published by Corluy in AB 5 (1886): 5-52 (here, 43.11-44.5); the story is also in Bedjan’s AMS 1: 173-201. There are (at least) three recensions in Armenian, one of which is in Vark’ ew vkaybanut’iwnk’ srboc’ 1: 6-25 (here, 22.5-13). Finally, Peeters published the Arabic (tr. from Syr.) in AB 44 (1926): 270-341 (here, 332.4-9).

The Martyrdom of ʿAbd al-Masīḥ 22.1-3 (Garitte, p. 230)

22.1 ხოლო რაოდენისამე ჟამსა კუალად წარვიდეს ვაჭარნი იგი მასვე გზასა, და გულსმოდგინე იყვნეს ყოვლითა ღონისძიებითა რაჲთამცა ეუწყა სახელი წმიდისაჲ მის; და ვითარცა მიეახლნეს ადგილსა მას და იხილეს ეკლესიაჲ, განუკჳრდა და განიხარესცა;

  • რაოდენი-მე some
  • ჟამი time
  • კუალი trace, step, foot (here adv., again, back; cf. Garitte’s note)
  • წარ-ვიდ-ეს aor 3pl წარსლვა to leave, depart
  • ვაჭარი merchant (cf. վաճառ, etc., < Parth. wāžār, MP wāzār)
  • გზაჲ way, road
  • გულსმოდგინეჲ anxious, eager
  • ღონის-ძიებაჲ attempt, means
  • -მცა particle used with indicative verbs to express a wish
  • ე-უწყ-ა aor pass 3sg უწყება to tell, inform
  • სახელი name
  • მი-ე-ახლ-ნ-ეს aor N 3pl მიახლება to draw near
  • ადგილი place
  • ი-ხილ-ეს aor 3pl ხილვა to see
  • გან-უ-კჳრ-დ-ა aor 3sg (indir. vb, w/ the CV -უ- for 3rd person, here pl, object) განკჳრვება to be amazed (for იხილეს და განუკჳრდა, as here, cf. Lk 2:48 and Acts 12:16). On the apparent confusion of impf and aor with -დ- in verbs of this kind, see Deeters, § 374, with this root on p. 202.
  • გან-ი-ხარ-ეს aor 3pl განხარება to rejoice

22.2 და ვითარ შევიდეს ეკლესიასა მას, იხილეს ლოდი იგი საშუალ, და ზედა მისსა საუფლოჲ ჯუარი ბრწყინვიდა; ჰკითხეს მსახურთა ეკლესიისათა, ვითარმედ: «რაჲ სახელი ჰრქჳან წმიდასა ამას, ანუ ვითარ სახედ იყო წამებაჲ მისი?»

  • შე-ვიდ-ეს aor 3pl შესლვა to enter
  • ლოდი stone
  • საშუალ there in the middle
  • საუფლოჲ of the Lord, dominical (< უფალი)
  • ჯუარი cross
  • ბრწყინვ-ი-დ-ა impf 3sg ბრწყინვა to shine
  • ჰ-კითხ-ეს aor 3pl O3 კითხვა to ask
  • მსახური servant
  • ჰ-რქჳან aor iter 3pl O3 რქუმა to say, name
  • სახეჲ nature, thing

22.3 ხოლო მნეთა მათ ჰრქუეს: «სახელი მაგისი არს აბდალმესია, რომელი ითარგმანების ქრისტედოლე, ხოლო ქართულად მონაჲ ქრისტჱსი»; და აუწყეს ვითარ სახედ იწამა.

  • მნეჲ administrator, chief (NB not მონაჲ servant, slave; Garitte tr. “Ministri”)
  • ჰ-რქუ-ეს aor 3pl რქუმა to say
  • ი-თარგმან-ებ-ი-ს pres pass 3sg თარგმანება to translate
  • ქართულად in Georgian
  • მონაჲ servant, slave
  • ა-უწყ-ეს aor 3pl უწყება to tell, inform (contrast the CV of the form here with the form in 22.1 above)
  • ი-წამ-ა aor 3sg წამება to bear witness, be martyred
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