Archive for the ‘East Syriac’ Tag
DCA (Chaldean Diocese of Alqosh) 62 contains various liturgical texts in Syriac. It is a fine copy, but the most interesting thing about the book is its colophon. Here first are the images of the colophon, after which I will give an English translation.
DCA 62, f. 110r
DCA 62, f. 110v
English translation (students may see below for some lexical notes):
This liturgical book for the Eucharist, Baptism, and all the other rites and blessings according to the Holy Roman Church was finished in the blessed month of Adar, on the 17th, the sixth Friday of the Dominical Fast, which is called the Friday of Lazarus, in the year 2150 AG, 1839 AD. Praise to the Father, the cause that put things into motion and first incited the beginning; thanks to the Son, the Word that has empowered and assisted in the middle; and worship to the Holy Spirit, who managed, directed, tended, helped, and through the management of his care brought [it] to the end. Amen.
I — the weak and helpless priest, Michael Romanus, a monk: Chaldean, Christian, from Alqosh, the son of the late deacon Michael, son of the priest Ḥadbšabbā — wrote this book, and I wrote it as for my ignorance and stupidity, that I might read in it to complete my service and fulfill my rank. Also know this, dear reader: that from the beginning until halfway through the tenth quire of the book, it was written in the city of Siirt, and from there until the end of the book I finished in Šarul, which is in the region of the city of Erevan, which is under the control of the Greeks (?), when I was a foreigner, sojourner, and stranger in the village of Syāqud.
The fact that the scribe started his work in Siirt (now in Turkey), relocated, then completed his work, is of interest in and of itself. As for the toponyms, Šarul here must be Sharur/Şərur, now of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (an exclave of Azerbaijan), which at the time of the scribe’s writing was under Imperial Russian control, part of the Armenian Province (Армянская область), and prior to that, part of the Safavid Nakhchivan Khanate, which, with the Erevan Khanate, Persia ceded to Russia at the end of the Russo-Persian War in 1828 with the Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, Persian ʿahd-nāme-yi Turkamānčāy). The spelling of Erevan in Syriac above matches exactly the spelling in Persian (ايروان). When the scribe says that Šarul/Sharur/Şərur is in the region of Erevan, he apparently means the Armenian Province, which contained the old Erevan Khanate. He says that the region “is under the control of the Greeks” (yawnāyē); this seems puzzling: the Russians should be named, but perhaps this is paralleled elsewhere. For Syāqud, cf. Siyagut in the Syriac Gazetteer.
See the Erevan and Nakhchivan khanates here called respectively Х(анст)во Ереванское and Х(анст)во Нахичеванское, bordering each other, both in green at the bottom of the map near the center.
For Syriac students, here are some notes, mostly lexical, for the text above:
- šql G sākā w-šumlāyā to be finished (hendiadys)
- ʿyādā custom
- ʿrubtā eve (of the Sabbath) > Friday
- zwʿ C to set in motion
- ḥpṭ D incite (with the preposition lwāt for the object)
- šurāyā beginning
- tawdi thanks (NB absolute)
- ḥyl D to strengthen, empower
- ʿdr D to help, support
- mṣaʿtā middle
- prns Q to manage, rule (cf. purnāsā below)
- dbr D to lead, guide
- swsy Q to heal, tend, foster
- swʿ D to help, assist, support
- ḥartā end
- mnʿ D to reach; to bring
- purnāsā management, guardianship, support (here constr.)
- bṭilutā care, forethought
So we have an outline of trinitarian direction in completing the scribal work: abā — šurāyā; brā — mṣaʿtā; ruḥ qudšā — ḥartā.
- mḥilā weak
- tāḥobā feeble, wretched
- mnāḥ (pass. ptcp of nwḥ C) at rest, contented
- niḥ napšā at rest in terms of the soul > deceased (the first word is a pass. ptcp of nwḥ G)
- mšammšānā deacon
- burutā stupidity, inexperience
- hedyoṭutā stupidity, simplicity (explicitly vocalized hēdyuṭut(y) above)
- šumlāyā fulfilling
- mulāyā completion
- dargā office, rank
- qāroyā reader
- pelgā half, part
- kurrāsā quire
- šlm D to complete, finish
- nukrāyā foreigner
- tawtābā sojourner
- aksnāyā stranger
- qritā village
I have written before on the page from CCM 10 that has the Trisagion in various languages, all in Syriac script. Let’s take a look specifically at the Turkish part now:
CCM 10, f. 8r, trisagion in Turkish written with Syriac letters
The readings of this one are more obvious than the Georgian part we looked at before. Here is a possible transcription:
arı Taŋrı, arı güçlü, arı ölmez
rahmet bizüm ʾwsnʾ eyle!
arı pure, clean (a homonym means bee, wasp). For “holy” in Isa 6:3, Ali Bey has kuddûs, and the same seems to be the norm in related places (e.g. Rev 4:8), too, in Ali Bey’s version and later translations. (For Ottoman translations of the Bible, see here.)
Taŋrı God (< sky). Here spelled tgry. The ŋ in this word (mod. Tanrı) was written in Ottoman with the ڭ (where so marked) or with نڭ. For the earlier history of the word see G. Clauson, An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish, pp. 523-524; Turkish and Mongolian Studies, pp. 9-10, 220, 223. It appears in other Turkic languages, too, such as Tatar тәңре. From a Turkic language the word came into Mongolian (sky, heaven, deity; in addition to the above references, cf. N. Poppe, Introduction to Mongolian Comparative Studies, p. 45). The word is listed, of course, in Kāšġarī’s famous work on Turkic languages; see vol. 3: 278-279 of edition available here (PDF); no other edition is available to me now, but for a Russian translation, see № 6418 in the Z.-A. Auezova’s 2005 work (Мах̣мӯд ал-Ка̄шг̣арӣ, Дӣва̄н Луг̣а̄т ат-Турк). (Clauson and others — such as K. Shiratori, Über die Sprache des Hiung-nu Stammes und der Tung-hu Stämme, pp. 3-4 — point to an early occurrence of the word in Chinese garb in the 漢書 Hàn Shū: the form is 撐犁, modern chēng lí < t’ʿäng liei < tʿäng liǝr. The passage is in the last part of the Hàn Shū, the biographies, chapter (94) 匈奴傳上, § 10, available here.) Whether or not there is a real connection, the Turkic word does immediately bring to mind Sumerian diĝir (which we might just as well spell diŋir).
güçlü strong, powerful, mighty. Note in the Syriac script that ç is indicated by a gāmal with an Arabic ǧīm beneath it.
ölmez immortal, undying (the root of ölmek to die + neg. suffix -mAz)
bizüm 1pl pron gen. We might expect the dative bize, but the phrase here (lit. do our mercy) is not altogether unclear; but see the note to the following word. Analogous phrases in Ottoman versions of the Bible do have the dative:
- Ps 123:3 Ali Bey ʿināyet eyle bize
- Ps 123:3 Turabi Effendi merhamet eyle bize
- Lk 18:38 Ali Bey (with 1sg) baŋa merhamet eyle
ʾwsnʾ I’m not immediately sure how to take this word. Possibly a mistake for üstüne upon, a postposition with bizüm for object?
eyle impv of the auxiliary verb eylemek to do, make, here with rahmet: to have mercy, be merciful
Manuscript № 181 of Saint Mark’s Monastery in Jerusalem (SMMJ) is an East Syriac manuscript, written, it seems, by a scribe named ʿAbdišoʿ of Ātēl. The main content of the manuscript is the First Part of Isaac of Bēt Qaṭrāyē, bishop of Nineveh’s famous monastic work (see GEDSH 213-214).
SMMJ 181, f. 1v
The text is complete, but between chapters 34 and 35 (acc. to Bedjan‘s numbering; the chapters are mostly unnumbered in this manuscript) there is another text, the beginning of which is unfortunately missing. After a little searching — thanks to Luk Van Rompay for the tip to check the Synodicon orientale! — I found that this intervening text is a Letter on Proper Conduct, especially on marriage, by Catholicos Aba I (d. 552; GEDSH 1), the text of which was published by Bedjan and Chabot; as it survives in this manuscript, the text corresponds to Bedjan, Histoire de Mar-Jabalaha, 282.3-287.12, and Chabot, Synodicon orientale, 83.6-85.9.
After the First Part, at the end of the manuscript, there are two more notes I would like to share. First, a note that seems to be in the same hand as the copied text of the manuscript:
SMMJ 181, f. 358v, scribal (?), note
Bless, sirs! Pray in the love of Christ for the sinner ʿAbdišoʿ of Ātēl, worn out, who came to Jerusalem in the year 1955 AG [=1643/4 CE].
He wrote these lines.
And again in the year 1962 AG [=1650/1 CE] the sinner came to Jerusalem. Pray for me. Amen.
Second, there is a short Syriac verse in the seven-syllable meter (with rhyme-end in -ṭē):
SMMJ 181, f. 358v
At the end of doomed times,
Let rulers be cursed,
Along with all idlers and slackers,
Foolish people and idiots!
Finally, the manuscript has pastedowns and endpapers in Syriac and Arabic. Here are two examples:
SMMJ 181, endpaper in Arabic
SMMJ 181, endpaper from a Syriac lectionary
I’ve not identified the Arabic text, but the Syriac endpaper above is from a lectionary, here with Ex 34:34-35 and Isa 58:1.
I continue with cataloging the collection of the Chaldean Cathedral of Mardin. In a very important manuscript, some other texts of which I hope to publish in the near future, I’ve come across a short work counting the years from Adam up to the mid-fifteenth century. I’ve just uploaded a document with both the Syriac text and an English translation here, and below just the translation is given.
CCM 20, f. 235r
The text comes from an East Syriac manuscript dated to 1770 AG (= 1458/9 CE), Chaldean Cathedral of Mardin (CCM) 20, ff. 235r-235v (olim Diyarbakır 106). Judging from the text itself, it is original to this manuscript (i.e. it’s not a copy). In its details for the years, I have not compared it with other similar texts in Syriac or other languages, but I offer it with an English translation simply as an example of how a fifteenth-century Syriac scribe looked back very briefly across human history as he saw it. In addition, Syriac students might find it to be a short and easy text, especially to practice their knowledge of Syriac numbers.
With God’s help I note down an index of the sum of years from Adam to today, [the years] sometimes defined, indicating the years of the Greeks. Our Lord, help me!
1 From Adam to the Flood there are 2242 years.
2 From the Flood to the building of the Tower [of Babel], 700 years.
3 From the building of the Tower to the promise [made to] Abraham, 500 years.
4 From the promise [made to] Abraham to the exodus from Egypt, 430 years.
5 [From that time to the time] of Moses, Joshua b. Nun, 67 years.
6 [From that time to the time] the kings, 524 years.
7 [From that time to the time] of the Babylon[ian captivity], 70 years.
8 From the freedom from Babylon to the crucifixion of our savior, 480 years.
9 From the crucifixion of our savior until the Persians ruled, 81 years.
10 From [the time] that the Persians ruled [f. 235v] until the Arabs [ṭayyāyē] ruled, 505 years.
11 From [the time] that the Arabs ruled to the year in which this book was noted down, 862 years.
12 The sum of all the years is 6950 years.
13 The years that the Persians ruled are 550 years.
14 The blessed lady Mary received the good news [i.e. the Annunciation] in the year 303 of the Greeks.
15 Our savior was born in the year 304.
16 He was baptized by John in the year 334.
17 He suffered, died, arose, and ascended to heaven in the year 337 of the Greeks.
18 From the ascension of our Lord to the year in which this book noted down, 1433 years.
Ended is the reckoning and numbering of the years from Adam to the year in which we are.
Across manuscript traditions in many languages, colophons are the place where a scribe (including the translator-scribe) can, among other things, tell something of the origin of the text just then completed, whether that means the manuscript he or she copied from, the person who commissioned the copying, the place of copying, etc. If the text copied is a translation, that is sometimes mentioned, too, as here from a Georgian colophon (S-384, 11th/12th cent.; see W. Djobadze, Materials for the Study of Georgian Monasteries in the Western Environs of Antioch on the Orontes, CSCO 372/Subs. 48 [Louvain, 1976], 24-25, from which this ET is adapted):
ლოცვა ყავთ წმიდანო ღმრთისანო. რომელნიცა მიემთხჳნეთ აღწერილსა ამას წმიდისა გრიგოლ ნოსელისასა. ცხორებასა დიდისა გრიგოლი საკჳრველთ-მოქმედისასა. რომელი დაიწერა ბერძულისაგან ქართულად მოსწრაფებითა მღდელისა გაბრიელისითა და ჴელითა ყოვლად უღირსისა ეფრემისითა. ხოლო ბრძანებითა ზოგადისა მამისა ჩუენისა. ბერისა საბაჲსითა…
Pray, holy men of God, those of you who come upon this Life of the great Gregory the Wonder-worker, written by Gregory of Nyssa, translated from Greek into Georgian thanks to the eagerness of the priest Gabriel and by the hand of the unworthy Ep’rem at the command of our common father, the monk Saba…
As a similar example in Arabic (Garšūnī), below is a simple colophon that comes at the end of a treatise attributed to John Chrysostom (“On the Departed, That it is not Appropriate to be Overly Sad about them”) in the manuscript Chaldean Cathedral of Mardin (CCM), 13, f. 120. The language is Arabic, but written in East Syriac script; for those who may not be familiar with the latter, I have transcribed it into Arabic letters and I have also given an English translation.
CCM 13, f. 120r
واذكروا الكاتب الحقير مطران بسيليوس في صلواتكم لكي يُنْجى من عذاب المَطْهَر لانّه نَقَلَهم من السرياني للعربي في سنة الف وسبعمائة وتاسع عشر لميلاد سيدنا يسوع المسيح له المجد والتسبيح الى ابد الآبدين آمين
Remember in your prayers the poor scribe, Muṭrān Basilios, that he might be delivered from the torment of purgatory, because he translated these [texts] from Syriac into Arabic in the year 1719 of the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory and praise forever and ever. Amen.