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Saint Christopher the Dog-headed (Armenian & Georgian; Old English)   2 comments

Some time ago I shared some excerpts in English translation from the Syriac version of the Martyrdom of Christopher. One of my favorite aspects of hagiographic study is the fact that so many texts are available in some form or other in more than one language (an aspect investigated by Paul Peeters and others): translators active in the languages of the Christian east spared little effort in effectively broadcasting these versions across the lands of the eastern Mediterranean, in Africa as far as Nubia and Ethiopia, at least, and along the Silk Road further east (in Syriac, Sogdian, and other languages). An incomplete picture of this translation activity can be seen in the outdated but still essential Bibliotheca hagiographica orientalis (1910), incomplete because of its age, because it reflects only published (as opposed to manuscript) resources, and because not all languages were included, the almost complete absence of Georgian being especially noteworthy. (See the bibliography I am compiling here.) These translated texts offer readers a lot to compare, whether in terms of content — how are the versions different or the same, for example, and why? — or in terms of specific linguistic categories, i.e. within the study of translation technique. Editions and studies of hagiographic text materials often take place along the lines of a single language (whether the original or a translation), less frequently with texts in two languages, but a great many hagiographic texts offer the possibility and promise of multilingual synoptic editions.

That said, nothing so grand here and now: without going into detail about the possible textual relationships of the versions of this story, here is only a short look at an Armenian and Georgian version of the martyrdom-tale, with a bit on Old English at the end. What follows is a single paragraph from the beginning about the saint’s appearance, origins, and first impulse towards martyrdom; the text is from Kekelidze’s edition of the Christopher tale (§ 2) from manuscript Tbilisi A-95, which is thankfully available electronically at TITUS here, along with bitonal, and unfortunately quite small, images of the manuscript itself. Even a quick comparison with the published Greek text (ed. G. van Hooff in the very first issue of AB [1882], this part on pp. 122-123) shows that an exact alignment of the two is impossible, and so, too, with the Armenian (here in Վարք եւ վկայաբանւթիւնք, vol. 2; “dog-headed” in Armenian is շանագլուխ, in case you’re wondering). Here are the beginnings of the aforementioned Armenian and Georgian texts with English translation and, for students of those languages, some lexical and grammatical notes. For comparison, note these synaxarion-readings: Arm. in PO 21: 429-433; Arab. in PO 16: 278-280; Gǝʿǝz in PO 46: 490-493.

Armenian

Եւ էր այր մի Շանագլուխ, գտեալ զնա կոմսի մի ի պատերազնի, եւ ած զնա առ թագաւորն եւ զինուորեցոյց զնա ընդ զօրս իւր. որոյ անուն էր Մարգարիտ։ Եւ տեսեալ զգործս ամպարըշտութեանն՝ խռովէր, եւ շարժեալ սիրտ նորա ի շնորհաց սուրբ Հոգւոյն՝ աղաչէր զԱստուած լինել ձեռնտու եւ օգնական յամենայնի, զի համարձակեսցի խօսել զբանն կենաց նովին բարբառով եւ լեզուաւ, եւ ոչ էր տեղեակ լեզուին։

There was a dog-headed man, whom a count, after having found him in battle, brought him to the king and enlisted him in his army, the name of which was Margarit [Greek ἐν τῷ νουμέρῳ τῶν μαρμαριτῶν]. Having seen the works of wickedness [there], [the dog-headed man] was troubled, and his heart having been moved by the grace of the Holy Spirit, he would ask God to be favorable and assisting in everything, that he might be permitted to speak the word of life with the same language and speech, and he was not skilled in speech.

  • գտեալ root ptcp գտանեմ to find
  • կոմէս, կոմսի count (< Gr.)
  • պատերազն, -ի, -ունք, -աց war, battle, fight, combat
  • ած aor 3sg ածեմ, ածի to lead, bring
  • զինուորեցոյց aor 3sg զինուորեցուցանեմ, -ուցի to enlist, train as a soldier, arm (analogous to ցուցանեմ to show [aor 1sg ցուցի, 3sg եցոյց], ուսուցանեմ to teach [aor 1sg ուսուցի, 3sg ուսոյց]) (for the root, cf. ultimately Middle Persian zēn, also Aramaic zēnā/zaynā, “weapon”)
  • զօր, -ու, -աց army
  • տեսեալ root ptcp տեսանեմ, տեսի to see
  • գործ, -ոյ work, thing, matter, action
  • ամպարըշտութիւն (ամբարշտութիւն) impiety, ungodliness, wickedness
  • խռովէր impf 3sg խռովեմ, -եցի to trouble, vex, disturb (here passive)
  • շարժեալ root ptcp շարժեմ, -եցի to move, agitate
  • սիրտ, սրտից heart
  • շնորհ, -ի, -ք, -աց grace, favor, pardon, mercy
  • աղաչէր impf 3sg աղաչեմ, -եցի to implore, ask
  • լինել inf. լինիմ to become
  • ձեռնտու helping, aiding, favorable
  • օգնական assisting, aiding
  • համարձակեսցի aor subj m/p 3sg համարձակեմ, -եցի to embolden; permit, allow
  • խօսել inf խօսիմ, -եցայ to speak, talk
  • բան, -ից speech, word, discourse
  • կեանք, կենաց life
  • նովին inst sg նոյն the same, the very
  • բարբառ, -ոյ speech, voice, language, dialect; cry; sound
  • լեզու, -ի/-ոյ, -աց tongue, language, speech
  • տեղեակ skilled, expert, well-versed

Georgian

იყო ვინმე კაცი მდაბალი და მოშიში ღმრთისაჲ. უცხოთესლთა ნათესავი, და ძაღლის-თავი იყო იგი. რამეთუ იყო იგი სოფლისაგან კაცის-მჭამელთაჲსა ტყუედ მოყვანებული გუნდისა ერთისაგან; და იქცეოდა იგი წინაშე მეფისა, და ნაქმევსა პირისა მისისასა შესცხრებიან. ხოლო ხედვიდა იგი დაჭრასა მას ქრისტიანეთასა და დევნასა ეკლესიათასა. და რამეთუ არა იცოდა მან ჩუენებრი სიტყუაჲ, ამისთჳს ფრიად და მწრაფლ მას-ცა ეგულებოდა მარტჳლობაჲ და ღუაწლი ქრისტჱსათჳს.

There was a certain man, humble and God-fearing, of barbarian stock, and he was dog-headed, since he was from the region of cannibals, brought as a prisoner from a troop. He would spend time before the king, and they enjoyed looking on the appearance of his face. But he noticed with concern the injury being done to the Christians and the persecution of the churches. Since he did not know speech like ours, for this reason he was greatly and quickly desiring martyrdom and a struggle for Christ.

  • მდაბალი humble
  • უცხოთესლი barbarian
  • ნათესავი relative, related
  • ძაღლი dog
  • მჭამელი eating (კაცის-მჭამელი man-eating, cannibal)
  • ტყუეჲ prisoner
  • მოყვანებული brought
  • გუნდი troop (cf. Middle Persian gund, Armenian գունդ, Aramaic gundā; see Jeffery, Foreign Vocabulary of the Qurʾān, 104-105, and more briefly, Fraenkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen, 238-239)
  • ი-ქც-ე-ოდ-ა impf 3sg ქცევა to go, move, walk around
  • ნაქმევი form, appearance
  • პირი face, mouth
  • შე-ს-ცხრ-ებ-ი-ან pres 3pl O3 შეცხრომა to take pleasure in, look on fondly
  • ხედ-ვ-იდ-ა impf 3sg ხედვა to see, care for, look after
  • დაჭრაჲ cutting, hurting
  • დევნაჲ persecution
  • იცოდა impf 3sg “to know”. An irregular verb, it takes, not only in the aor (3sg იცნა), but also in the impf (as here), subjects in the ergative and objects in the nominative. (This particular irregularity, manifest as such in assuming იცოდა is Series I — it thus being peculiar in having an ergative subject — points to this verb’s complex history, one in which the ending -ოდა has caused a Series II form to be taken as Series I [imperfect].)
  • მწრაფლ quick
  • ე-გულებ-ოდ-ა impf 3sg (indirect verb) გულება to wish, want
  • მარტჳლობაჲ martyrdom (also მარტჳრობაჲ < μάρτυς)
  • ღუაწლი struggle

Old English

Finally, and for fun, here is mention of dog-headed people, this time in Egypt, in The Wonders of the East in the famous Old English manuscript, Cotton MS Vitellius A XV, f. 100r (see here), presented essentially as in the manuscript, with a few vocabulary items.

Eac swẏlce þær beoð cende
healf hundingas ða syndon
hatene conopenas hẏ hab-
bað horses mana & eoferes
tuxas & hunda heafda & heo-
ra oruð bið swẏlce fẏres leg
þas land beoð neah ðæm bur-
gu(m) þe beoð eallum worldwe-
lum gefylled þ(æt) is on þa suðhealfe egẏpta-
na landes.

  • cennan give birth
  • healf-hunding cynocephalus
  • syndon = sind are
  • hātan to call, name
  • eofor wild board (cf. L. aper)
  • tux = tusc (NB the variability of cs [x] and sc)
  • oroþ breath
  • līg, lēg flame
  • weorld-wela worldly wealth
BL, Cotton Vitell. A XV, f. 100r

BL, Cotton Vitell. A XV, f. 100r

Note that immediately preceding this text is a life of Saint Christopher (ff. 94r-98r; mod. ET here), but it is acephalous (pun intended), and Christopher’s dog-head is not mentioned, it seems, but in the Old English Martyrology (April 28; pp. 66-69 in Herzfeld’s ed.), we find the description on Christopher as above (and as in Syriac), and with vocabulary similar to that of the passage in The Wonders of the East. Herzfeld’s text and modern ET):

…of þære þeode þær men habbað hunda heofod ond of þære eorðan on þære æton men hi selfe. he hæfde hundes heofod, ond his loccas wæron ofer gemet side, ond his eagan scinon swa leohte swa morgensteorra, ond his teð wæron swa scearpe swa eofores tuxas. he wæs gode geleaffull on his heortan, ac he ne mihte sprecan swa mon.

…from the nation where men have the head of a dog and from the country where men devour each other. He had the head of a dog, his locks were exceedingly thick, his eyes shone as brightly as the morning star, and his teeth were as sharp as a boar’s tusk. In his heart he believed in God, but he could not speak like a man.

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Trisagion in Turkish (Syriac script)   Leave a comment

I have written before on the page from CCM 10 that has the Trisagion in various languages, all in Syriac script. Let’s take a look specifically at the Turkish part now:

CCM 10, f. 8r, trisagion in Turkish written with Syriac letters

CCM 10, f. 8r, trisagion in Turkish written with Syriac letters

The readings of this one are more obvious than the Georgian part we looked at before. Here is a possible transcription:

arı Taŋrı, arı güçlü, arı ölmez

rahmet bizüm ʾwsnʾ eyle!

Notes

arı pure, clean (a homonym means bee, wasp). For “holy” in Isa 6:3, Ali Bey has kuddûs, and the same seems to be the norm in related places (e.g. Rev 4:8), too, in Ali Bey’s version and later translations. (For Ottoman translations of the Bible, see here.)

Taŋrı God (< sky). Here spelled tgry. The ŋ in this word (mod. Tanrı) was written in Ottoman with the ڭ (where so marked) or with نڭ. For the earlier history of the word see G. Clauson, An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish, pp. 523-524; Turkish and Mongolian Studies, pp. 9-10, 220, 223. It appears in other Turkic languages, too, such as Tatar тәңре. From a Turkic language the word came into Mongolian (sky, heaven, deity; in addition to the above references, cf. N. Poppe, Introduction to Mongolian Comparative Studies, p. 45). The word is listed, of course, in Kāšġarī’s famous work on Turkic languages; see vol. 3: 278-279 of edition available here (PDF); no other edition is available to me now, but for a Russian translation, see № 6418 in the Z.-A. Auezova’s 2005 work (Мах̣мӯд ал-Ка̄шг̣арӣ, Дӣва̄н Луг̣а̄т ат-Турк). (Clauson and others — such as K. Shiratori, Über die Sprache des Hiung-nu Stammes und der Tung-hu Stämme, pp. 3-4 — point to an early occurrence of the word in Chinese garb in the 漢書 Hàn Shū: the form is 撐犁, modern chēng lí < t’ʿäng liei < tʿäng liǝr. The passage is in the last part of the Hàn Shū, the biographies, chapter (94) 匈奴傳上, § 10, available here.) Whether or not there is a real connection, the Turkic word does immediately bring to mind Sumerian diĝir (which we might just as well spell diŋir).

güçlü strong, powerful, mighty. Note in the Syriac script that ç is indicated by a gāmal with an Arabic ǧīm beneath it.

ölmez immortal, undying (the root of ölmek to die + neg. suffix -mAz)

bizüm 1pl pron gen. We might expect the dative bize, but the phrase here (lit. do our mercy) is not altogether unclear; but see the note to the following word. Analogous phrases in Ottoman versions of the Bible do have the dative:

  • Ps 123:3 Ali Bey ʿināyet eyle bize
  • Ps 123:3 Turabi Effendi merhamet eyle bize
  • Lk 18:38 Ali Bey (with 1sg) baŋa merhamet eyle

ʾwsnʾ I’m not immediately sure how to take this word. Possibly a mistake for üstüne upon, a postposition with bizüm for object?

eyle impv of the auxiliary verb eylemek to do, make, here with rahmet: to have mercy, be merciful

From the Armenian synaxarion, Feb 9: Victorinus and companions in Corinth, with English translation   Leave a comment

The martyrdom story of Victorinus, Victor, Nicephorus, Claudius, Diodore, Serapion, and Papias (cf. BHO 1245 for Syriac, see here; for Greek here, on Jan 31), set in the time of Decius, offers students of Armenian — at least those with a strong stomach — a worthwhile opportunity for reading practice and vocabulary learning, especially for terms for body parts. Below is the Armenian text from PO 21: 13-14, vocabulary, and my English translation.

Զսրբոյն Բիքտորինոսի հանին զաջոյ ակն, եւ ի մամուլս ջախջախեցին զմարմինն, եւ սրով հատին զամենայն մատունսն ոտիցն եւ ձեռացն։

  • հանին pres 3pl հանեմ, հանի to remove, pull out
  • աջ, -ոյ, -ու right
  • ակն, ական eye
  • մամուլ, մամլոց press
  • ջախջախեցին aor 3pl ջախջախեմ, -եցի to crush
  • սուր, սրոց sword
  • հատին aor 3pl հատանեմ, հատի to cut (off)
  • մատն, մատին, մատանց finger, toe
  • ոտն, ոտին, ոտից foot
  • ձեռն, ձեռին, ձեռաց hand

Եւ զսուրբն Վիքտորոս կապեցին ի չորս ցիցս զձեռս եւ զոտս, եւ հատին զլեզուն, եւ քերանօք քերթեցին զամենայն մարմինն։

  • կապեցին aor 3pl կապեմ, -եցի to bind, tie
  • ցից, ցցոյ stake, post
  • լեզու, -ի/-ոյ, -աց tongue
  • քերանք (act of) scratching, scraping
  • քերթեցին aor 3pl քերթեմ, -եցի to flay, peel off

Եւ զսուրբն Նիկիփորոս պնդեցին ի մեքենայս մինչեվ հոսեաց արիւնն ի քթացն եւ ի բերանոյն եւ յականջացն, եւ ապա կախեցին զհերացն յարմաւենի ծառ։

  • պնդեցին aor 3pl պնդեմ, -եցի to strain, tighten
  • մեքենայ, -ից machine, device
  • հոսեաց aor 3sg հոսեմ, -եցի to flow, gush, stream
  • արիւն, արեանց blood
  • քիթ, քթաց nose
  • բերան, -ոց mouth
  • ականջք, -աց ears (plurale tantum; a single ear is ունկն, ունկան)
  • կախեցին aor 3pl կախեմ, -եցի to hang, suspend
  • հեր, -աց hair
  • արմաւենի palm tree
  • ծառ, -ոց tree

Եւ զսուրբն Կղաւդիոս խիստ տանջեցին, եւ կախեցին գլխիվայր, եւ աղբ ծխեցին յերեսն. եւ արկին ի հոտոտելիսն քացախ խիստ, եւ ապա կտրեցին զձեռսն եւ զոտսն։

  • խիստ harshly, cruelly, severely
  • տանջեցին aor 3pl տանջեմ, -եցի to torture
  • գլխիվայր head downwards, upside down (< գլուխ, գլխոց head)
  • աղբ, -ոց, -ից excrement, dung
  • ծխեցին aor 3pl ծխեմ, -եցի to smoke
  • երեսք, երեսաց (plurale tantum) face
  • արկին aor 3pl արկանեմ, արկի to cast, throw
  • հոտոտելիք, -լեաց (plurale tantum) nose
  • քացախ, -ոյ vinegar, acid
  • կտրեցին aor 3pl կտրեմ, -եցի to cut (off)

Եւ զսուրբն Դիոդորոս յետ բազում չարչարանաց հրով այրեցին։

  • չարչարանք, -նաց (plurale tantum) suffering, torment, torture, pain
  • հուր, հրոյ fire
  • այրեցին aor 3pl այրեմ, -եցի to burn

Եւ զսուրբն Սրապիոն սրով գլխատեցին։

  • գլխատեցին aor 3pl գլխատեմ, -եցի to behead, decapitate (< գլուխ, գլխոց head)

Եւ զսուրբն Պապիաս բեւեռեցին ի փայտի, եւ կապեալ վիմաւ ընկեցին ի ծովն։

  • բեւեռեցին aor 3pl բեւեռեմ, -եցի to nail (< բեւեռ, -ի, -աց nail)
  • փայտ, -ից wood, tree
  • կապեալ ptcp կապեմ, -եցի to bind, tie
  • վէմ, վիմաց stone, rock
  • ընկեցին aor 3pl ընկենում, ըկեցի to throw, cast
  • ծով, -ուց sea

Եւ այնպէս կատարեցան ի Քրիստոս։

  • կատարեցան aor m/p 3pl կատարեմ, -եցի to finish, end, complete; m/p to die

English’d:

They plucked out Saint Victorinus’ right eye, crushed his body in a press, and cut off all his fingers and toes with the sword. They bound Saint Victor to four stakes with his hands and feet, cut out his tongue, and lacerated his whole body. They pressed Saint Nicephorus in a machine until the blood gushed from his nose, mouth, and ears, and then they hung him from a palm tree. They harshly tortured Saint Claudius, hung him upside down, burned excrement in his face, poured vinegar down his nose, and then they cut off his hands and feet. Saint Diodore, after much suffering, they burned with fire. They beheaded Saint Serapion with the sword. They nailed Saint Papias to a piece of wood and they threw him, bound with a stone, into the sea. And thus they died in Christ.

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 39 (Mirian & religion in Georgia)   Leave a comment

Ⴜ(ႫႨႣႠ)Ⴢ ႫႤႴႤ ႫႨႰႨႠႬႤ | წ(მიდა)ჲ მეფე მირიანი. King Mirian, from the Samtavisi Cathedral. Source.

Ⴜ(ႫႨႣႠ)Ⴢ ႫႤႴႤ ႫႨႰႨႠႬႤ | წ(მიდა)ჲ მეფე მირიანი. King Mirian, from the Samtavisi Cathedral. Source.

For today’s Georgian reading, here are a few lines from the K’art’lis c’xovreba, with Robert Thomson’s translation (Rewriting Caucasian History).

ed. 65.7-9 (Th. 77)

და იყოს შვილი ჩემი ორსავე სჯულსა ზედა: მამათა ჩუენთა ცეცხლის-მსახურებასა და თქუენთა კერპთასა, რამეთუ პირველვე ამას ზედა მოეცა ფიცი.

“My son [Mirian] will observe both religions, the fire-worship of our fathers and the worship of your idols”, because he had previously given his oath for this.

  • იყოს aor. conj. 3sg ყოფა to be
  • სჯული law, religion
  • ცეცხლის-მსახურებაჲ fire-worship
  • კერპჲ idol
  • მო-ე-ც-ა aor 3sg მოცემა to give
  • ფიცი oath, vow

ed. 65.15-17 (Th. 77)

და აღიზარდა მირიან მსახურებასა მას შინა შჳდთა მათ კერპთასა და ცეცხლისასა.

Mirian grew up in the worship of the seven idols and of fire.

ხოლო შეიყუარნა ქართველნი, და დაივიწყა ენა სპარსული და ისწავა ენა ქართული.

He loved the Georgians, forgot the Persian tongue,  and learned the Georgian language.

  • აღ-ი-ზარდ-ა aor 3sg აღზრდა to be reared, grow up
  • მსახურებაჲ worship (cf. above in ცეცხლის-მსახურებაჲ)
  • შე-ი-ყუარ-ნ-ა aor 3sg N შეყუარება to love
  • და-ი-ვიწყ-ა დავიწყება to forget
  • სპარსული Persian
  • ი-სწავ-ა aor 3sg სწავება to learn

The seven gods are:

  1. Armazi (არმაზი)
  2. Gac’i (გაცი)
  3. Gaim (გაიმ)
  4. Ainina (აინინა)
  5. Danina (დანინა)
  6. Zadeni (ზადენი)
  7. The seventh in view here may be Aphrodite, an idol of whom is mentioned as having been brought to Georgia by Sep’elia, wife of the king Rev, and set up at the entrance to Mc’xet’a (ed. 58.2, Thomson, p. 69).

In the Life of Nino, we also find mention of Armazi, Gac’i, and Gaim (cf. Lang, Lives and Legends of the Georgian Saints, pp. 23-24). Further on early religion in Georgia, for which the textual data are much later, see especially Michael Tseretheli (1935), “The Asianic (Asia Minor) Elements in National Georgian Paganism,” Georgica 1: 28-66; and later, the indices under the names of the gods in Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History and Stephen H. Rapp, Jr., Studies in Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts and Eurasian Contexts (CSCO 601), esp. p. 277-279, where our passage above is also cited.

Excerpts from the martydom tale of Goharine &c. in the Armenian synaxarion (with a talking decapitated head!)   Leave a comment

As I’ve done before (see also here), here are a few sentences from the Armenian synaxarion together with Bayan’s French translation. I’ve made a few notices of the Armenian vocabulary, too, ad usum scholarum. The story here (for 24 Hrotic’/30 July) is the martyrdom of Goharine and her brothers (nothing in BHO; summary in English here), set, it seems, in the twelfth century. The PO text (21: 795-799) and FT is here.

795

հայրն իւրեանց Դաւիթ գերեալ ի Տաճկաց որ եւ դարձուցին զնա ի կրօնս իւրեանց, եւ զանդրանիկ որդի նորա։

  • գերեալ ptcp գերեմ, -եցի to take prisoner, capture
  • Տաճիկ, -ճկաց Arab; Turk
  • դարձուցանեմ, -ուցի to turn, convert
  • կրօն, -նից religion; custom; way of life; sect
  • անդրանիկ, -կաց oldest, first-born

Leur père David fut emmené captif par les Musulmans qui le convertirent à leur religion ainsi que son fils aîné.

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796

Իսկ մայրն իւրեանց հաստատուն եկաց ի հաւատսն որ ի Քրիստոս, եւ բարեպաշտութեամբ սնոյց զորդիս իւր.

  • հաստատուն firm, solid, constant
  • եկաց 3s aor of կամ to stand (Meillet § 112)
  • հաւատ, -ոյ, -ք, -տոց faith, belief, creed
  • բարեպաշտութիւն piety, religion
  • սնոյց 3s aor of սնուցանեմ, -ցի, սնո՛ to nourish, instruct (see the end of the post for more on this verb)

Mais leur mère demeura ferme dans sa foi au Christ, et éleva pieusement ses enfants;

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եւ վասն արիութեանն իւրեանց զինուորեցան բռնաւորին Տաճկաց Ալի Բասանայ, յազգէ Դանշմանացն որ տիրէր Սեբաստիոյ եւ կողմանցն Պոնտոսի,

  • արիութիւն bravery, courage (արի brave, courageous)
  • զինուորեցան 3pl aor mid/pas զինուորեմ, -եցի to enlist, maintain soldiers (so in the mid/pas, to be enlisted in the army)
  • բռնաւոր violent; tyrant
  • ազգ, -աց nation, people
  • տիրէր 3s impf տիրեմ, -եցի to rule, seize, conquer
  • կողմն, -մանաց quarter, country, region

ceux-ci à cause de leur courage s’enrôlèrent dans l’armée du tyran musulman Ali Bassan, de la race des Danishmends, qui régnait à Sébaste et sur les contrées du Pont;

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այր գազանաբարոյ եւ արիւնախանձ մոլեալ ընդդէմ քրիստոնէից։

  • գազանաբարոյ fierce, savage (գազան beast)
  • արիւնախանձ bloodthirsty, cruel (արիւն, արեանց blood)
  • մոլեալ ptcp of մոլեմ, -եցի to drive made (so here, raging, furious)
  • ընդդէմ against

homme d’un naturel bestial, assoiffé de sang, et fou furieux contre les chrétiens.

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Նոքա որդիք են տաճկի եւ թողեալ զօրէնս մեր կան քրիստոնէութեամբ, գարշին ի կերակրոց մերոց, եւ ոչ կան յաղօթս ընդ մեզ։

  • թողում, թողի to abandon, give up
  • օրէնք, օրինաց faith, religion
  • կան (2x) 3pl pres կամ, կացի to be, exist, live, remain, stand
  • գարշիմ, -եցայ to detest, hate, abhor
  • կերակուր, -կրոց food
  • աղօթք, -թից prayer

Ce sont les enfants d’un musulman, qui ont abandonné notre religion, vivent en chrétiens, répugnent à nos mets et ne prient point avec nous.

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797

Ռատիոս գնաց ի վանքն եւ եղել կրօնաւոր։

  • գնաց 3s aor. ind. գնամ, գնացի to go
  • վանք convent, monastery
  • եղել 3s aor եղանիմ to become
  • կրօնաւոր monk (< կրօն, -ք, -նից religion, faith; religious order, monastic life)

Ratios se retira dans un couvent et se fit religieux.

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…հրամայեաց փորել զերկիր եւ թաղել զԳոհարինէ մինչեւ ի մէջսն, եւ նետաձիգ լինել ի նա ամենայն բազմութիւնն։

  • հրամայեաց 3s aor հրամայեմ, -եցի to command
  • փորել inf փորեմ, -եցի to dig
  • թաղել inf թաղեմ, -եցի to bury
  • մէջ, միջոյ, -ով (pl.) middle > waist
  • նետաձիգ լինել to shoot an arrow (cf. նետ, -ից arrow, shaft, dart)
  • բազմութիւն crowd, multitude

…il ordonna de creuser la terre et d’y enterrer Gohariné jusqu’à la taille, et commanda à toute la foule de lui lancer dex flèches.

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798

Եւ բարկացեալ անօրէնն հրամայեաց զԳոհարինէ հեղձամղձուկ առնել ի ջուրն հեղեղատին. եւ զՏունկիոս եւ զԾամիդէս ածել զառաջեաւ, եւ զՌատիոս պրկել փոկովք եւ հարկանել։

  • բարկացեալ angry, in a rage (cf. բարկանամ, -ացայ to be angry)
  • անօրէն unjust, wicked
  • հեղձամղձուկ suffocated, choked (adj.)
  • առնել inf առնեմ, արարի to make, cause (w/ prev. and foll. words: to drown)
  • ջուր, ջրոյ water
  • հեղեղատ, -աց torrent (cf. հեղեղ, -աց torrent, flood)
  • ածել inf ածեմ, ածի to fetch, carry, bring
  • զառաջեաւ before, in front (adv.)
  • պրկել inf պրկեմ, -եցի to bind
  • փոկ, -ոց/-աց leather thong, strap
  • հարկանել inf հարկանեմ, հարի to beat, strike

L’infidèle, irrité, ordonna de noyer Gohariné dans les eaux du torrent et d’introduire en sa présence Tounkios, Dsamidès, puis d’enserrer fortement Ratios dans des lanières et de le frapper.

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եթէ թողուս մեզ կեալ քրիստինէութեամբ, եւ քեզ ծառայեսցուք միամտութեամբ, ապա թէ ոչ այլ իրք մի՛ հարցաներ ընդ մեզ. քրիստոնէայք եմք, զոր ինչ առնելոց ես արա՛։

  • թողուս 2s pres թողում, թողի to let, leave, allow
  • կեալ inf կեամ to live
  • ծառայեսցուք 1p aor ծառայեմ, -եցի to serve, wait upon
  • միամտութիւն sincerity, fidelity, simplicity
  • իր, -ի, -աց thing, affair
  • հարցաներ 2s imv հարցանեմ, -ցի to ask
  • եմք 1p pres եմ to be
  • առնելոց ptcp gen.pl. [NB -եալ > -ելV] առնեմ, արարի to do
  • ես 2s pres եմ to be
  • արա՛ 2s imv առնեմ, արարի to do

…si tu nous laisses vivre en chrétiens, nous te servirons fidèlement; dans le cas contraire, ne nous fais plus de questions: nous sommes chrétiens; fais ce que tu as à faire.

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799

Եւ տարեալ ի տեղի կատարմանն հատին զգլուխ երանելոյն Ռատիոսի։ Եւ հատեալ գլուխն խօսէր եւ քաջալերէր զեղբարսն մի՛ երկնչել ի մահուանէ։

  • տարեալ ptcp տանիմ, տարայ to lead [NB -ն- in pres, -ր- in aor]
  • տեղի, -ղւոյ, -ղեաց place, spot, site
  • կատարումն end, death, completion (here gen.sg.; see Meillet § 56 for nouns in -մն)
  • հատին 3p aor հատանեմ, հատի to cut
  • գլուխ, գլխոց head
  • երանեալ blessed, happy [again NB -եալ > -ելV] (cf. in Ps 1:1, Երանեալ է այր որ ո՛չ գնաց ՛ի խորհուրդս ամպարշտաց, but the Beatitudes have a different, but related adjective: Երանի́ աղքատաց հոգւով, etc.)
  • հատեալ ptcp հատանեմ, հատի to cut
  • խօսէր 3s impf խօսիմ, -եցայ to speak
  • քաջալերէր 3s impf քաշալերեմ, -եցի to encourage, embolden
  • եղբայր, եղբաւր, եղբարց  brother (Meillet § 57b)
  • երկնչել inf  երկնչիմ, -կեայ, -կի՛ր to fear
  • մահ, մահու/մահուան death (Meillet § 59f)

Les ayant menés au lieu de l’exécution, ils tranchèrent la tête au bienheureux Ratios. Mais la tête tranchée parla à ses frères et les encouragea à ne point craindre la mort.

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On the form սնոյց. The 3s aor ends in -ոյց, the 1s being -ուցի. For the alternation ոյ/ու (see Meillet, p. 18; Godel §2.222), cf. լոյս light, with gen/dat/abl լուսոյ; that is, -ոյ- in closed syllable, -ու- in open syllable.

Here are a few more occurrences of the form (also with the imper in Ex 2:9), with the Greek for the biblical texts:

Ex 2:9 եւ ասէ ցնա դուստրն փարաւոնի. ա́ռ զմանուկդ, եւ սնո́ ինձ զդա. եւ ես տաց քեզ զվարձս քո։ Եւ ա́ռ կինն զմանուկն՝ եւ սնոյց զնա։ εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτὴν ἡ ϑυγάτηρ Φαραω Διατήρησόν μοι τὸ παιδίον τοῦτο καὶ ϑήλασόν μοι αὐτό, ἐγὼ δὲ δώσω σοι τὸν μισϑόν. ἔλαβεν δὲ ἡ γυνὴ τὸ παιδίον καὶ ἐϑήλαζεν αὐτό.

Dt 1:31 զի սնո́յց զքեզ տ(է)ր ա(ստուա)ծ քո, ո(ր)պ(էս) սնուցանիցէ ոք զորդի իւր ὡς ἐτροϕοϕόρησέν σε κύριος ὁ ϑεός σου, ὡς εἴ τις τροϕοϕορήσει ἄνϑρωπος τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ

1Sam 1:23 Եւ նստա́ւ կինն եւ սնո́յց զորդին իւր՝ մինչեւ հատոյց զնա ՛ի ստենէ։ καὶ ἐκάϑισεν ἡ γυνὴ καὶ ἐϑήλασεν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς, ἕως ἂν ἀπογαλακτίσῃ αὐτόν.

Ps 22:2 եւ առ ջուրս հանգստեան սնոյց զիս։ ἐπὶ ὕδατος ἀναπαύσεως ἐξέϑρεψέν με

Acts 7:21 եւ յընկեցիկն առնել զնա՝ եբարձ զնա դուստրն փառաւոնի, եւ սնոյց զնա ի́ւր յորդեգիրս։ ἐκτεϑέντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἀνείλατο αὐτὸν ἡ ϑυγάτηρ Φαραὼ καὶ ἀνεϑρέψατο αὐτὸν ἑαυτῇ εἰς υἱόν.

Agat. § 37 եւ մերձաւորեալ զնա սնոյց դայեկօք երկիւղիւն Քրիստոսի. Thomson, p. 53: “And he was brought up by his tutors [lit. he (i.e. an unnamed person), having adopted him, raised him with tutors (n. on p. 458)] in the fear of Christ.”

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 23 (Euphemianus and Alexis)   Leave a comment

The passage below comes from near the end of the story of Euphemianus and his son Alexis (aka The Man of God), in K. Kekelidze, Keimena, tom. 1, pp. 161-165; for other languages, cf. BHG 51, BHO 36-44, GCAL I:497-498, and CSCO 298-299. In Kekelidze’s edition, the title runs [Ⴇ~ⴀ ⴋⴐⴚⴑⴀ ႨႪ:] ⴚⴞⴍⴐⴄⴁⴀⴢ ⴄⴅⴔⴄⴋⴈⴀⴌⴄⴑⴈ ⴃⴀ ⴛⴈⴑⴀ ⴋⴈⴑⴈⴑⴀ ⴀⴊⴄⴕⴑⴈⴑⴈ, that is, for March 17, ცხორებაჲ ევფემიანესი და ძისა მისისა ალექსისი, The Life of Euphemianus and his Son Alexis. I give the Greek (from Pereira’s edition in AB 19 [1900], 243-253 [BHG 51]) for convenient comparison, the Georgian text from Kekelidze, my English translation of that, and the same Georgian text broken down into sentences with vocabulary. It will be immediately evident that the Greek and Georgian texts do not match exactly. (In this and other passages is evident a feature of the Greek version that Pereira notes as follows [p. 245, n. 1]: “Les mots d’origine latine, dont nous signalerons en note les plus marquants, sont assez nombreux dans notre texte pour faire croire, sinon que notre légende est traduite du latin, du moins que son auteur était familiarisé avec la langue latine.”)

Ἐγένετο δὲ ὁ καιρὸς τοῦ ἐξελθεῖν αὐτὸν ἐκ τοῦ σώματος, καὶ ἡνίκα ηὐδόκησεν ὁ Κύριος παραλαβεῖν τὴν παραθήκην αὐτοῦ ἐξ αὐτοῦ, εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν παῖδα τὸν ὑπηρετοῦντα αὐτῷ· Ἀδελφέ, φέρε μοι χαρτίον καὶ μελάνην καὶ κάλαμον, Καὶ ἔγραψεν πάντα τὸν βίον αὐτοῦ καὶ τὰ μυστήρια, ἃ εἶχεν μεταξὺ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ ἃ ἐλάλησεν τῇ νύμφῇ ἐν τῷ γάμῷ, καὶ ὡς ἀπέδωκεν τὸ δακτύλιον αὐτοῦ τὸ χρυσοῦν καὶ τὴν ῥένδαν ἐντετυλιγμένην εἰς πράνδεον καὶ πορφυροῦν, καὶ πάντα τὸν βίον αὐτοῦ ἔγραψεν, ὅπως γνωρίσωσιν αὐτὸν ὅτι αὐτός ἔστιν ὁ υἱὸς αὐτῶν. (Pereira, p. 249)

და იყო ოდეს მოიწია ჟამი მისი ზეცით წოდებისაჲ ო~ლისა მიერ. ჰქ~ა მსახურსა მას თჳსს: ძმაო ჩემო. წარვედ და მომართუ მე ქარტაჲ და მელანი და კალამი და მან მოართუა. ხოლო ალექსი დაწერა ყ~ლი რ~ი რაჲ იყო საქმჱ მისი და ნიშანი ოდეს იგი მისცა ცოლსა სარტყელი და ბეჭედი შარითა წახუეული რ~ი საიდუმლოჲ იყო ყ~ლთა-გან. და იპყრა იადგარი იგი ჴელსა მარჯუენესა: და ეგრეთ შეისუენა ნეტარმან ალექსიმ დღესა კჳრიაკესა჻ (Kekelidze, end of § 6, p. 163)

When the time for his call in heaven from the Lord came, he [Alexis] said to his servant, “My brother, go and bring me paper, ink, and pen,” and he brought it. Then Alexis wrote what his whole story had been and when [as] a sign to his wife [he had given] the belt and the ring wrapped in fine linen, which was a secret from them all, and he grasped the hymnbook [iadgari] in his right hand, and thus the blessed Alexis died on a Sunday.

და იყო ოდეს მოიწია ჟამი მისი ზეცით წოდებისაჲ ო~ლისა მიერ.

  • მოწევნა to approach, come near, arrive
  • ჟამი time
  • ზეცაჲ heaven
  • წოდებაჲ call

ჰქ~ა მსახურსა მას თჳსს:

  • მსახური servant

ძმაო ჩემო. წარვედ და მომართუ მე ქარტაჲ და მელანი და კალამი და მან მოართუა.

  • წარსლვა to go away
  • მორთუმა to bring
  • ქარტაჲ paper
  • მელანი ink
  • კალამი pen

ხოლო ალექსი დაწერა ყ~ლი რ~ი რაჲ იყო საქმჱ მისი და ნიშანი ოდეს იგი მისცა ცოლსა სარტყელი და ბეჭედი შარითა წახუეული რ~ი საიდუმლოჲ იყო ყ~ლთა-გან.

  • ნიშანი sign, mark
  • სარტყელი belt
  • ბეჭედი ring
  • შარი costly linen
  • წახუეული wrapped up (cf. წარხუევა to wrap up)
  • საიდუმლოჲ secret

და იპყრა იადგარი იგი ჴელსა მარჯუენესა:

  • პყრობა to grasp
  • იადგარი hymn-book
  • მარჯუენეჲ right (hand)

და ეგრეთ შეისუენა ნეტარმან ალექსიმ დღესა კჳრიაკესა჻

  • შესუენება to die

As an appendix, for one parallel among several possible (i.e. the text in other languages), here is the same part of the tale in a Gǝʕǝz version (CSCO 298, pp. 145-146, ed. E. Cerulli), with my translation:

ወሶበ ፡ ርእየ ፡ ቅዱስ ፡ ዘንተ ፡ ራእየ ፡ ተፈሥሐ ፡ ወተኀሥየ ፡ ፈድፋደ ፡ ወይቤሎ ፡ ለውእቱ ፡ ገብር ፡ ዘይትለአኮ ፡ አምጽእ ፡ ሊተ ፡ ክርታሰ ፡ ወማየ ፡ ሕመተ ፡ ወእምይእዜ ፡ ተዐርፍ ፡ እምፃማ ፡ ዚአየ። ወአንከረ ፡ ውእቱ ፡ ገብር ፡ እምነገሩ ፡ ወአምጽአ ፡ ሎቱ ፡ ክርታሰ ፡ ወማየ ፡ ሕመተ። ወጸሐፈ ፡ ቅዱስ ፡ ሙሴ ፡ ብእሴ ፡ እግዚአብሔር ፡ ኵሎ ፡ ገድሎ ፡ እምጥንቱ ፡ እስከ ፡ ተፍጻሜቱ። ወበራብዕ ፡ ዕለት ፡ ነሥአ ፡ ውእቱ ፡ ክርታሰ ፡ ዘጸሐፈ ፡ በእዴሁ ፡ ወአዕረፈ ፡ በዕለተ ፡ እሑድ። ወዓርገት ፡ ነፍሱ ፡ ውስተ ፡ ሰማያት። ወተቀበልዎ ፡ መላእክት ፡ ጻድቃን ፡ ወሰማዕት ፡ ነቢያት ፡ ወሐዋርያት ፡ እንዘ ፡ ይብሉ፤ ሃሌ ፡ ሉያ ፡ ፍርቃን ፡ ለአምላክነ። ወቦአ ፡ ውስተ ፡ ሰማያት።

When the saint saw this vision, he rejoiced and was very glad, and he said to his servant who was assisting him, “Bring me paper and ink, and henceforth shall you rest from labor in my [service].” The servant was surprised at his words and brought him paper and ink. Then the saint, Moses the Man of God, wrote all of his combat from beginning to end. On the fourth day, he took in his hand the paper he had written and he died [lit. rested] on a Sunday. His soul went up to heaven and the angels, the just, the martyrs, the prophets, and the apostles received it, saying, “Halleluia, salvation to our God!” And he entered heaven.

“Satan” upside down in an Arabic manuscript   Leave a comment

I’ve mentioned here before the writing upside down of names as a means of cursing, dissociation, or the like (here, here, and cf. here). Today, while cataloging an Arabic manuscript from Mardin — CCM 17, 18th century, which contains accounts of miracles of Mary and other saints — I found another example, this time with “Satan”, and notably, in Arabic script, not Syriac, as was the case with the other examples I’ve pointed out. In this image, you can see al-šayṭān upside down in lines 2, 5, and 7.

CCM 17, f. 47r.

CCM 17, f. 47r.

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