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“Sinking in the sea of sin”, pt. II: Ephraem Armeniacus Adorator   Leave a comment

Some time ago I pointed out an Arabic/Garšūnī colophon with the phrase, “sinking in the sea of sin,” and I have since found another example from the fourteenth century (SMMJ 250, dated 1352, f. 246r, image below; sim. on f. 75r of the same manuscript).

SMMJ 250, f. 246r

SMMJ 250, f. 246r

Ephrem the Syrian, Mosaic in Nea Moni, 11th cent. Source. The lines at the bottom are from Lk 6:21: "Blessed are those who weep now, because you will laugh."

Ephrem the Syrian, Mosaic in Nea Moni, 11th cent. Source. The lines at the bottom are from Lk 6:21: “Blessed are those who weep now, because you will laugh.”

From the pen of my colleague, Edward G. Mathews, Jr., has recently appeared a little book of the collection of Armenian prayers attributed to Ephrem (vol. 4 of the Mekhitarist ed., [Venice, 1836], pp. 227-276; the prayers are also in an edition from Jerusalem [1933], and others), with Armenian text and facing English translation: The Armenian Prayers (Աղօթք) attributed to Ephrem the Syrian, TeCLA 36 (Gorgias Press, 2014). A concise and helpful introduction opens the book, and it concludes with indices for scripture and subject.

There is a lot of sin in the Armenian prayers attributed to Ephrem the Syrian. And there are a lot metaphors for sin in them, too, which may be wholesome fodder for certain classes of philologist. As I was going through this new book, it seemed like a fine idea to highlight some of the places in these ps.-Ephremian prayers that are similar to the Arabic phrase mentioned above. Some of the lines below have vocabulary similar to the “peaceful harbor” imagery that is used in colophons, on which see my paper, “The Rejoicing Sailor and the Rotting Hand: Two Formulas in Syriac and Arabic Colophons, with Related Phenomena in some Other Languages,” Hugoye 18 (2015): 67-93 (available here). This kind of language also reaches beyond biblical, patristic, and scribal texts. We hear Jean Valjean uttering “whirlpool of my sin” in “What Have I Done?” from Les Misérables.

Now for our examples from these Armenian prayers attributed to Ephrem. For these few lines I’m giving the Armenian text, Mathews’ English translation, and for fellow students of Armenian, a list of vocabulary.

I.1

…եւ ի յորձանս անօրէնութեան տարաբերեալ ծփին,

եւ առ քեզ ապաւինիմ,

որպէս Պետրոսին՝ ձեռնարկեա ինձ։

  • յորձան, -աց torrent, current, whirlpool
  • անօրէնութիւն iniquity, impiety
  • տարաբերեմ, -եցի to shake, agitate, move, stir
  • ծփեմ, -եցի to agitate, trouble
  • ապաւինիմ, -եցայ to trust, rely, take refuge, take shelter
  • ձեռնարկեմ, -եցի to put one’s hand to

…I am floundering and tossed about in torrents of iniquity.

But I take refuge in You,

Reach out Your hand to me as You did to Peter.

I.2

Ո՛վ խորք մեծութեան եւ իմաստութեան,

փրկեա՛ զըմբռնեալս՝

որ ի խորս մեղաց ծովուն անկեալ եմ.

  • խորք, խրոց pit, depth, bottom, abyss
  • փրկեմ, -եցի to save, deliver
  • ըմբռնեմ, -եցի to seize, trap, catch
  • մեղ, -աց sin
  • ծով, -ուց sea

O depths of majesty and of wisdom,

Deliver me for I am trapped,

and I have fallen into the depths of the sea of sin.

I.7

նաւապետ բարի Յիսուս՝ փրկեա՛ զիս

ի բազմութենէ ալեաց մեղաց իմոց,

եւ տո՛ւր ինձ նաւահանգիստ խաղաղութեան։

  • նաւապետ captain
  • ալիք, ալեաց wave, surge, swell
  • տո՛ւր impv 2sg տամ, ետու to give, provide, make
  • նաւահանգիստ port, haven, harbor
  • խաղաղութիւն peace, tranquility, rest, quiet

O Good Jesus, my Captain, save me

from the abundant waves of my sins,

and settle me in a peaceful harbor.

I.20

Ձգեա՛ Տէր՝զձեռս քո ի նաւաբեկեալս՝

որ ընկղմեալս եմ ի խորս չարեաց,

եւ փրկեա՛ զիս ի սաստիկ ծովածուփ բռնութենէ ալեաց մեղաց իմոց։

  • ձգեմ, -եցի to stretch, extend, draw
  • նաւաբեկիմ to run aground, founder, be shipwrecked
  • ընկղմեմ, -եցի to sink, submerge, drown, bury
  • շարիք, -րեաց, -րեօք evil deeds, iniquity; disaster
  • սաստիկ, սաստկաց extreme, intense, violent, strong
  • ծովածուփ tempestuous, stormy
  • բռնութիւն violence, fury (< բուռն, բռանց fist, with many other derivatives)

Stretch forth, O Lord, Your hand to me for I am shipwrecked

and I am drowning in the abyss of my evil deeds.

Deliver [me] from the stormy and violent force of the waves of my sins.

I.64

Խաղաղացո՛ զիս Տէր՝ ի ծփանաց ալեաց խռովութեանց խորհրդոց,

եւ զբազմւոթեան յորձանս մեղաց իմոց ցածո՛,

եւ կառավարեա՛ զմիտս իմ ժամանել

յանքոյթ եւ ի խաղաղ նաւահանգիստն Հոգւոյդ սրբոյ։

  • Խաղաղացո՛ impv 2sg խաղաղացուցանեմ, խաղաղացուցի to calm
  • ծփանք wave, billow
  • ձորձան, -աց current, torrent, whirlpool
  • ցածո՛ impv 2sg ցածուցանեմ, ցածուցի to reduce, diminish, soften, calm, humiliate
  • կառավերեմ, -եցի to guide, direct, govern
  • միտ, մտի, զմտաւ, միտք, մտաց, մտօք mind, understanding
  • ժամանեմ, -եցի to arrive, be able, happen
  • անքոյթ safe, secure

Grant me peace, O Lord, from the billowy waves of my turbulent thoughts,

Abate the many whirlpools of my sins.

Steer my mind that it may come

To the safe and peaceful harbor of Your Holy Spirit.

In I.81, we have, not the sea, but, it seems, a river (something fordable):

Անցո՛ զիս Տէր՝ ընդ հուն անցից մեղաց…

  • Անցո՛ impv 2sg անցուցանեմ, անցուցի to cause to pass, carry back, transmit
  • հուն, հնի ford, shallow passage
  • անցք, անցից passage, street, channel, opening

Bring me, O Lord, through the ford of the river of sins…

The sea and drowning are by no means the only metaphors for sin in these prayers. Others from pt. I include ice (15), dryness (21), thorn (23; also p. 120, line 8), sleep (25), darkness (39, 102), nakedness (44-45), bondage and prison (54, 93), a quagmire (62), an abyss (71), “dung and slime” (72), and a weight and burden (123, 125, 129). From pt. III, p. 106, ll. 29-30:

հա՜ն զիս ի տղմոյ անօրէնութեան իմոյ,

զի մի՛ ընկլայց յաւիտեան։

  • հա՜ն impv 2sg հանեմ, հանի to remove, dislodge, lift up
  • տիղմ, տղմոյ mire, mud, filth
  • ընկլայց aor subj m/p 1sg ընկլնում, -կլայ (also ընկղմիմ, -եցայ!) to founder, sink, be plunged
  • յաւիտեան, -ենից eternity

Remove me from the mire of my iniquity

lest I sink in forever.

Metaphors from nature for things other than sin are “the ice of disobedience,” “the fog of mistrust,” “the raging torrents of desires for pleasures,” and ” the spring of falsehood” in pt. VI, p. 136, ll. 23-26.

Whether these places are of interest to you spiritually, conceptually, philologically, or some combination of those possibilities, I leave you to ponder them.

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Old Georgian phrases and sentences 67 (Physiologus § 13)   Leave a comment

The text this time is longer than others in the series, but here is the whole of Physiologus § 13 in Georgian. The Georgian version was published by Marr (in asomtavruli, with Armenian) and later by Gigineišvili and E. Giunašvili. For the Armenian version, published alongside Greek, see Muradyan. Generally on this very widespread work, see here. Alin Suciu has written on a use of the Physiologus in a Coptic lectionary here.

In addition to vocabulary and a few grammatical notes, below I’ve included Graf’s German translation (pp. 100-101).

Bibliography

Gigineišvili, B. and E. Giunašvili, შატბერდის კრებული X საუკუნისა / Шатбердский сборник X века (Tbilisi, 1979), pp. 175-190 (§ 13 on p. 180). Available at TITUS here.

Graf, G. 1925. “Der georgische Physiologus.” Caucasica 2: 93–114.

Marr, N. 1904. Физиолог. Армяно-грузинский извод. Грузинский и армянский тексты, исследование,  издание и переводИздания факультета восточных языков Императорского Санкт-Петербургского университета 6. Tbilisi.

Muradyan, G., Physiologus: The Greek and Armenian Versions with a Study of Translation Technique, Hebrew University Armenian Studies 6 (Louvain, 2005). See here.

In addition, I refer a couple of times below to Gerhard Deeters, Das Kharthwelische Verbum (Leipzig, 1930), where the text of the Physiologus fortunately served for examples.

Text and notes

Here’s an image of Marr’s text:

Marr, Phys., pp. 16-17

Marr 1904, pp. 16-17

კეთილად ჰრქ(უ)ა იოვანე ფარისეველთა.

Gut sprach Johannes zu den Pharisäern:

„ნაშობნო ასპიტთანო. ვინ გიჩოჳენა თქ(უე)ნ სივლტოლაჲ რისხვისაჲ. რ(ომელ)ი მოსლვად არს‟.

„Natternbrut! Wer hat euch gezeigt, dem Zorne zu entrinnen, der kommen wird?‟

  • ნაშობი born, child
  • ასპიტი viper (ἀσπίς)
  • გ-ი-ჩოჳენ-ა aor 3sg O2 ჩუენება to show, reveal
  • სივლტოლაჲ to flee
  • რისხვაჲ wrath
  • მოსლვაჲ to come

სახის-მეტყოჳელმან თქ(უ)ა. ასპიტისაჲ.

Der Naturbeschreiber sprach von der Natter:

  • სახის-მეტყოჳელი (physiologus) discoverer, investigator (სახეჲ nature + მეტყუელი speaker)

რ(ა)ჟ(ამ)ს მამალი შეეხის დედალსა. პირით მაკნდის. და დედალმან რ(ა)ჟ(ამ)ს შთანთქის თესლი იგი. საოჳრველნი მოჰკოჳეთნის მამალსა მას და განაშოვრნის

Wenn das Männchen das Weibchen berührt, wird dieses durch den Mund trächtig, und wenn das Weibchen den Samen verschlingt, schneidet es dem Männchen die Geschlechtsteile weg und trennt (sie) ab.

  • მამალი male
  • შე-ე-ხ-ი-ს iter aor 3sg შეხება to touch
  • დედალი female
  • პირი mouth
  • მაკნ-დ-ი-ს iter aor 3sg მაკნება to get pregnant (cf. Fähnrich, Georg. Spr., pp. 242, 248-255 for the -დ- in the aor of this kind of verb)
  • შთა-ნთქ-ი-ს iter aor 3sg შთანთქმა to swallow, gulp
  • თესლი seed
  • საოჳრველი testicle
  • მო-ჰ-კოჳეთ-ნ-ის მოკუეთა to cut off (cf. Mt 5:30 Ad მოიკუეთე იგი)
  • გან-ა-შოვრ-ნ-ის iter aor 3sg N განშოვრება to remove, eliminate

რ(ა)ჟ(ამ)ს ჰგონიენ მამალსა მას თოჳ შეეხო დედალსა მას. მოჳნქოჳესვე მოკოჳდის მამალი იგი. სიკოჳდილის წინა მრავალჯერ მივიდის. მოვიდის დედლისა მის. და რ(ამეთუ) ვერ დაოჳთმის შეეხის დედალსა [p. 17] მას და მოკოჳდის.

Indem das Männchen wohl weiß: Sobald es das Weibchen berührt, daraufhin stirbt es — so geht und kommt das Männchen vor dem Tode oftmals zu dem Weibchen, und weil es nicht ausharrt, berührt es das Weibchen und stirbt.

  • ჰ-გონ-იენ perf 3sg გონება to think, to seem to (indirect verb) (on the form of the verb, cf. Deeters, § 93, where this very sentence is cited, along with the plural ჰგონიედ, from Keimena I 31.29)
  • შე-ე-ხ-ო aor 3sg შეხება to touch
  • მოჳნქოჳეს-ვე quickly, immediately
  • მო-კოჳდ-ი-ს aor iter 3sg მოკუდომა to die
  • სიკოჳდილი death
  • მრავალჯერ often, frequently
  • მი-ვიდ-ი-ს aor iter 3sg მისლვა to go
  • მო-ვიდ-ი-ს aor iter 3sg მოსლვა to come
  • და-ოჳ-თმ-ი-ს aor iter 3sg დათმობა to be patient

ხოლო დედალსა მას, რამეთუ არა ადგნ მუცელი, რაჲთა-მცა მართუენი იტჳრთნა, რაჟამს აღორძნდიან ლეკუნი იგი, განჴურიტნიან გუერდნი დედისა თჳსისანი და გამოჴდიან და მოკლიან დედაჲ იგი თჳსი და ესრეთ მამა-დედისა მჭამელ არიან.

Aber das Weibchen — weil es keinen Bauch hat, damit es die Jungen trage, — wenn die Jungen wachsen, durchstoßen sie die Seiten ihrer Mutter und töten ihre Mutter, und so sind sie die Verzehrer der Eltern.

  • ა-დგ-ნ pres 3sg დგმა to have (see Deeters, § 204, p. 118, where this line is quoted)
  • მუცელი belly
  • მართუეჲ young (of animals)
  • ი-ტჳრთ-ნ-ა aor 3sg ტჳრთვა to bear, raise
  • აღ-ორძნ-დ-ი-ან aor iter 3pl აღორძინება to grow
  • ლეკუი young animal
  • გან-ჴურიტ-ნ-ი-ან aor iter 3pl N განჴურეტა to pierce, bore through
  • გუერდი side
  • გამო-ჴდ-ი-ან aor iter 3pl გამოჴდომა to come out
  • მო-კლ-ი-ან aor iter 3pl მოკლვა to kill
  • მამა-დედაჲ father-mother > parents (a dvandva compound)
  • მჭამელ eater, consumer

კეთილად ამსგავსნა ფარისეველნი ასპიტთა:

Gut hat er die Pharisäer mit Nattern verglichen.

  • ა-მსგავს-ნ-ა aor 3sg N მსგავსება to compare (cf. Lk 13:20 A-89 რასა ხოჳამსგავსო სასოჳფეველი ღ(მრთისა)ჲ  τίνι ὁμοιώσω τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ;)

ვითარცა-სახედ ასპიტმან მამა-დედაჲ მოკლის, ეგრე-ცა ფარისეველთა — მამაჲ საგონებელი, მამაჲ და დედაჲ თჳსი, მაცხოვარი ჩუენი იესუ ქრისტჱ და ეკლესიაჲ. რაჲთა აღესრულოს სივლტოლაჲ რისხვისაჲ მის, რომელი მოსლვად არს?

Gleichwie die Natter die Eltern tötet, so auch die Pharisäer den geistigen Vater, ihren Vater und ihre Mutter, unseren Erlöser Jesus Christus und die Kirche, auf daß erfüllt wird: „zu entrinnen seinem Zorne, der kommen wird‟.

  • მოკლის aor iter 3sg მოკლვა to kill
  • საგონებელი conceivable
  • მაცხოვარი savior
  • აღ-ე-სრულ-ო-ს aor conj 3sg აღსრულება to fulfill

ხოლო მამაჲ იგი მათი და დედაჲ მათი ცხოველ არიან უკუნისამდე და იგინი მოწყდეს საუკუნოდ.

Aber ihr Vater und ihre Mutter sind lebend, ewig; und sie (die Pharisäer) kamen um auf ewig.

  • ცხოველი living
  • უკუნისამდე forever (უკუნი eternity + postposition -მდე until)
  • მო-წყდ-ეს aor 3pl მოწყდომა to die out, go extinct, go to waste
  • საუკუნოდ evermore (adv of საუკუნოჲ eternal)

Saint Christopher the Dog-headed (Armenian & Georgian; Old English)   2 comments

Some time ago I shared some excerpts in English translation from the Syriac version of the Martyrdom of Christopher. One of my favorite aspects of hagiographic study is the fact that so many texts are available in some form or other in more than one language (an aspect investigated by Paul Peeters and others): translators active in the languages of the Christian east spared little effort in effectively broadcasting these versions across the lands of the eastern Mediterranean, in Africa as far as Nubia and Ethiopia, at least, and along the Silk Road further east (in Syriac, Sogdian, and other languages). An incomplete picture of this translation activity can be seen in the outdated but still essential Bibliotheca hagiographica orientalis (1910), incomplete because of its age, because it reflects only published (as opposed to manuscript) resources, and because not all languages were included, the almost complete absence of Georgian being especially noteworthy. (See the bibliography I am compiling here.) These translated texts offer readers a lot to compare, whether in terms of content — how are the versions different or the same, for example, and why? — or in terms of specific linguistic categories, i.e. within the study of translation technique. Editions and studies of hagiographic text materials often take place along the lines of a single language (whether the original or a translation), less frequently with texts in two languages, but a great many hagiographic texts offer the possibility and promise of multilingual synoptic editions.

That said, nothing so grand here and now: without going into detail about the possible textual relationships of the versions of this story, here is only a short look at an Armenian and Georgian version of the martyrdom-tale, with a bit on Old English at the end. What follows is a single paragraph from the beginning about the saint’s appearance, origins, and first impulse towards martyrdom; the text is from Kekelidze’s edition of the Christopher tale (§ 2) from manuscript Tbilisi A-95, which is thankfully available electronically at TITUS here, along with bitonal, and unfortunately quite small, images of the manuscript itself. Even a quick comparison with the published Greek text (ed. G. van Hooff in the very first issue of AB [1882], this part on pp. 122-123) shows that an exact alignment of the two is impossible, and so, too, with the Armenian (here in Վարք եւ վկայաբանւթիւնք, vol. 2; “dog-headed” in Armenian is շանագլուխ, in case you’re wondering). Here are the beginnings of the aforementioned Armenian and Georgian texts with English translation and, for students of those languages, some lexical and grammatical notes. For comparison, note these synaxarion-readings: Arm. in PO 21: 429-433; Arab. in PO 16: 278-280; Gǝʿǝz in PO 46: 490-493.

Armenian

Եւ էր այր մի Շանագլուխ, գտեալ զնա կոմսի մի ի պատերազնի, եւ ած զնա առ թագաւորն եւ զինուորեցոյց զնա ընդ զօրս իւր. որոյ անուն էր Մարգարիտ։ Եւ տեսեալ զգործս ամպարըշտութեանն՝ խռովէր, եւ շարժեալ սիրտ նորա ի շնորհաց սուրբ Հոգւոյն՝ աղաչէր զԱստուած լինել ձեռնտու եւ օգնական յամենայնի, զի համարձակեսցի խօսել զբանն կենաց նովին բարբառով եւ լեզուաւ, եւ ոչ էր տեղեակ լեզուին։

There was a dog-headed man, whom a count, after having found him in battle, brought him to the king and enlisted him in his army, the name of which was Margarit [Greek ἐν τῷ νουμέρῳ τῶν μαρμαριτῶν]. Having seen the works of wickedness [there], [the dog-headed man] was troubled, and his heart having been moved by the grace of the Holy Spirit, he would ask God to be favorable and assisting in everything, that he might be permitted to speak the word of life with the same language and speech, and he was not skilled in speech.

  • գտեալ root ptcp գտանեմ to find
  • կոմէս, կոմսի count (< Gr.)
  • պատերազն, -ի, -ունք, -աց war, battle, fight, combat
  • ած aor 3sg ածեմ, ածի to lead, bring
  • զինուորեցոյց aor 3sg զինուորեցուցանեմ, -ուցի to enlist, train as a soldier, arm (analogous to ցուցանեմ to show [aor 1sg ցուցի, 3sg եցոյց], ուսուցանեմ to teach [aor 1sg ուսուցի, 3sg ուսոյց]) (for the root, cf. ultimately Middle Persian zēn, also Aramaic zēnā/zaynā, “weapon”)
  • զօր, -ու, -աց army
  • տեսեալ root ptcp տեսանեմ, տեսի to see
  • գործ, -ոյ work, thing, matter, action
  • ամպարըշտութիւն (ամբարշտութիւն) impiety, ungodliness, wickedness
  • խռովէր impf 3sg խռովեմ, -եցի to trouble, vex, disturb (here passive)
  • շարժեալ root ptcp շարժեմ, -եցի to move, agitate
  • սիրտ, սրտից heart
  • շնորհ, -ի, -ք, -աց grace, favor, pardon, mercy
  • աղաչէր impf 3sg աղաչեմ, -եցի to implore, ask
  • լինել inf. լինիմ to become
  • ձեռնտու helping, aiding, favorable
  • օգնական assisting, aiding
  • համարձակեսցի aor subj m/p 3sg համարձակեմ, -եցի to embolden; permit, allow
  • խօսել inf խօսիմ, -եցայ to speak, talk
  • բան, -ից speech, word, discourse
  • կեանք, կենաց life
  • նովին inst sg նոյն the same, the very
  • բարբառ, -ոյ speech, voice, language, dialect; cry; sound
  • լեզու, -ի/-ոյ, -աց tongue, language, speech
  • տեղեակ skilled, expert, well-versed

Georgian

იყო ვინმე კაცი მდაბალი და მოშიში ღმრთისაჲ. უცხოთესლთა ნათესავი, და ძაღლის-თავი იყო იგი. რამეთუ იყო იგი სოფლისაგან კაცის-მჭამელთაჲსა ტყუედ მოყვანებული გუნდისა ერთისაგან; და იქცეოდა იგი წინაშე მეფისა, და ნაქმევსა პირისა მისისასა შესცხრებიან. ხოლო ხედვიდა იგი დაჭრასა მას ქრისტიანეთასა და დევნასა ეკლესიათასა. და რამეთუ არა იცოდა მან ჩუენებრი სიტყუაჲ, ამისთჳს ფრიად და მწრაფლ მას-ცა ეგულებოდა მარტჳლობაჲ და ღუაწლი ქრისტჱსათჳს.

There was a certain man, humble and God-fearing, of barbarian stock, and he was dog-headed, since he was from the region of cannibals, brought as a prisoner from a troop. He would spend time before the king, and they enjoyed looking on the appearance of his face. But he noticed with concern the injury being done to the Christians and the persecution of the churches. Since he did not know speech like ours, for this reason he was greatly and quickly desiring martyrdom and a struggle for Christ.

  • მდაბალი humble
  • უცხოთესლი barbarian
  • ნათესავი relative, related
  • ძაღლი dog
  • მჭამელი eating (კაცის-მჭამელი man-eating, cannibal)
  • ტყუეჲ prisoner
  • მოყვანებული brought
  • გუნდი troop (cf. Middle Persian gund, Armenian գունդ, Aramaic gundā; see Jeffery, Foreign Vocabulary of the Qurʾān, 104-105, and more briefly, Fraenkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen, 238-239)
  • ი-ქც-ე-ოდ-ა impf 3sg ქცევა to go, move, walk around
  • ნაქმევი form, appearance
  • პირი face, mouth
  • შე-ს-ცხრ-ებ-ი-ან pres 3pl O3 შეცხრომა to take pleasure in, look on fondly
  • ხედ-ვ-იდ-ა impf 3sg ხედვა to see, care for, look after
  • დაჭრაჲ cutting, hurting
  • დევნაჲ persecution
  • იცოდა impf 3sg “to know”. An irregular verb, it takes, not only in the aor (3sg იცნა), but also in the impf (as here), subjects in the ergative and objects in the nominative. (This particular irregularity, manifest as such in assuming იცოდა is Series I — it thus being peculiar in having an ergative subject — points to this verb’s complex history, one in which the ending -ოდა has caused a Series II form to be taken as Series I [imperfect].)
  • მწრაფლ quick
  • ე-გულებ-ოდ-ა impf 3sg (indirect verb) გულება to wish, want
  • მარტჳლობაჲ martyrdom (also მარტჳრობაჲ < μάρτυς)
  • ღუაწლი struggle

Old English

Finally, and for fun, here is mention of dog-headed people, this time in Egypt, in The Wonders of the East in the famous Old English manuscript, Cotton MS Vitellius A XV, f. 100r (see here), presented essentially as in the manuscript, with a few vocabulary items.

Eac swẏlce þær beoð cende
healf hundingas ða syndon
hatene conopenas hẏ hab-
bað horses mana & eoferes
tuxas & hunda heafda & heo-
ra oruð bið swẏlce fẏres leg
þas land beoð neah ðæm bur-
gu(m) þe beoð eallum worldwe-
lum gefylled þ(æt) is on þa suðhealfe egẏpta-
na landes.

  • cennan give birth
  • healf-hunding cynocephalus
  • syndon = sind are
  • hātan to call, name
  • eofor wild board (cf. L. aper)
  • tux = tusc (NB the variability of cs [x] and sc)
  • oroþ breath
  • līg, lēg flame
  • weorld-wela worldly wealth
BL, Cotton Vitell. A XV, f. 100r

BL, Cotton Vitell. A XV, f. 100r

Note that immediately preceding this text is a life of Saint Christopher (ff. 94r-98r; mod. ET here), but it is acephalous (pun intended), and Christopher’s dog-head is not mentioned, it seems, but in the Old English Martyrology (April 28; pp. 66-69 in Herzfeld’s ed.), we find the description on Christopher as above (and as in Syriac), and with vocabulary similar to that of the passage in The Wonders of the East. Herzfeld’s text and modern ET):

…of þære þeode þær men habbað hunda heofod ond of þære eorðan on þære æton men hi selfe. he hæfde hundes heofod, ond his loccas wæron ofer gemet side, ond his eagan scinon swa leohte swa morgensteorra, ond his teð wæron swa scearpe swa eofores tuxas. he wæs gode geleaffull on his heortan, ac he ne mihte sprecan swa mon.

…from the nation where men have the head of a dog and from the country where men devour each other. He had the head of a dog, his locks were exceedingly thick, his eyes shone as brightly as the morning star, and his teeth were as sharp as a boar’s tusk. In his heart he believed in God, but he could not speak like a man.

Ulfilas and Gothic Christianity (from the commemoration of Niketas the Goth in Greek, Georgian, and Armenian)   Leave a comment

APIB 2, p. 127, rubric for Niketas the Goth, Hoṙi 6/September 15

APIB 2, p. 127, rubric for Niketas the Goth, Hoṙi 6/September 15

In the synaxarion for Sept 15, we find in the commemoration of Niketas the Goth (cf. BHG 1339-1340) a brief mention of the famous Ulfilas. As an exercise for students of Armenian, here is the passage from two 17th-century manuscripts, along with vocabulary, followed by some related excerpts from the metaphrastic version of the commemoration.

The knowledge of Ulfilas’ role in the spread of Christianity among the Goths, including the creation of a script for Gothic and the translation of the Bible into Gothic, is well known. Here is a brief statement from Sokrates’ Eccl. hist. (4.33.6, P. Maraval and P. Périchon, Socrate de Constantinople, Histoire ecclésiastique (Livres I-VII), Paris, 2004-2007):

Τότε {δὲ} καὶ Οὐλφίλας ὁ τῶν Γότθων ἐπίσκοπος γράμματα ἐφεῦρεν Γοτθικά, καὶ τὰς θείας γραφὰς εἰς τὴν Γότθων μεταβαλὼν τοὺς βαρβάρους μανθάνειν τὰ θεῖα λόγια παρεσκεύασεν.

See further these resources, some older, some newer, on Ulfilas and Gothic:

To return to our Armenian manuscripts, on APIB 1, dated 1637, see also this post. The similar manuscript APIB 2, with APIB 3 a large two-volume manuscript, is dated 1684.

APIB 1, p. 112

APIB 1, p. 112

Here are the texts from APIB 1 and, for comparison, Bayan’s ed. of a different text in PO (here):

APIB 1 Սո՛ւրբ նիկիտաս է՛ր ի խուժադուժ երկրէն գո՛թացւոց որէ յարեվմուտս ի հիւսիսային կողմն յայնկոյս գետոյն դանուբայ. յամս մեծին կոստանդիանոսի։

  • խուժադուժ, -ից barbarous, savage
  • արեւմուտք, -մտից the West
  • հիւսիսային northern
  • կողմն, -մանց side, quarter, region, land
  • յայնկոյս over, beyond, on the other side
  • գետ, -ոց, -ից river

B Սուրբ վկայն Քրիստոսի Նիկիտաս, էր ի խուժադուժ երկրէն Գոթացւոց, յայնկոյս գետոյն մեծի Դանուբայ, ի ժամանակս մեծի արքային սրբոյն Կոստանդիանոսի։

APIB 1 եւ էր հա՛ւատովն քրիստոնեայ խրատեալ ի մեծէն թէոփիլոսէ գա՛ւթացւոց ե(պիսկոպո)սէն։ Որ էր մի եւ նա. զճ՟ եւ ժը՟ հայրապետացն որ ի նիկիայ։

  • հաւատ, -ոյ, -ք, -ոց faith, belief, creed
  • խրատեմ, -եցի to admonish, instruct
  • NB the spelling of գա՛ւթացւոց for Գոթացոց, a kind of hypercorrection
  • զճ՟ եւ ժը՟ = 318, which is fully spelled out below

B Եւ էր խրատեալ եւ ուսեալ զուղղափառ հաւատս քրիստոնէութեան յերանելոյն Թէոփիլոսէ Գոթացոց եպիսկոպոսէն, որ էր մի ի յերեք հարիւր ութ եւ տասնիցն Նիկիոյ առաջին ժողովոյն։

  • ուսեալ ուսանիմ, ուսայ, ուսիր to learn, study, be instructed
  • ուղղափառ, -աց orthodox
  • երեք հարիւր ութ եւ տասնիցն 318 (Meillet, Altarm. Elementarbuch, § 78)
  • առաջին, առաջնում, -ջնոյ, -ջնմէ, -ջնոց first, ancient
  • ժողով, -ոց assembly, council, synod

And several lines later Ulfilas is mentioned. Here are images from APIB 1 and 2:

APIB 1, p. 112

APIB 1, p. 112

APIB 2, p. 127 (cont.)

APIB 2, p. 127 (cont.)

APIB 2, p. 128

APIB 2, p. 128

The texts, then, from APIB 1 and Bayan are:

APIB 1 Եւ յետ մահուանն թէոփիլոսի. եղեւ եպ(իսկոպո)ս ուրփիլոս յայնմ աշխարհին գո՛թացւոց. եւ գիր եւս արար այնմ լեզուին։ եւ բազմացոյց զքրիստոնեայսն՝ յորոց մի էր եւս ս(ուր)բն նիկիտաս։

  • յետ after
  • մահ, -ու/-ուան, -ուց death
  • եւս also, still, more
  • բազմացուցանեմ, -ուցի to enlarge, increase, multiply

B Եւ յետ մահուանն Թէոփիլոսի եղեւ Ուրփիլոս եպիսկոպոս Գոթացւոց, եւ գիրս եւս երեւեցոյց այնմ բարբառոյն եւ ընդարձակագոյն ուսոյց զխուժադուժ ազգն եւ բազմացոյց զքրիստոնէութիւնն, յորոց էր եւ սուրբն Նիկիտաս։

  • երեւեցոյց երեւեցուցանեմ, -ուցի to cause to appear, show, produce
  • բարբառ, -ոյ speech, language, dialect
  • ընդարձակագոյն larger, vast, very long, lengthy
  • ուսուցանեմ, ուսուցի to teach, instruct (cf. above ուսանիմ)

Now here are some selections from the metaphrastic version of the hagiography in Greek and Georgian. These texts, rather more detailed than the Armenian above, line up closely, but differ a bit in vocabulary (cf. φίλτρον სარწმუნოებაჲ). The Greek is from PG 115, cols. 705, 708, §§ 1 and 3 (see beginning here) and the Georgian is from Nargiza Goguaże, ძველი ქართული მეტაფრასული კრებულები სექტემბრის საკითხავები, ძველი ქართული მწერლობის ძეგლები 7 (Tbilisi, 1986), this part beginning here at TITUS. Due to the length of these extracts added to the Armenian above, I have been more sparing than usual in the amount of lexical help I have supplied.

From § 1

Ἴσασι πάντες τὸν ποταμὸν Ἴστρον μεγέθει καὶ εὐθηνίᾳ, ὅσα φέρουσι, τὸ περιβόητον ἔχοντα, ὃν καὶ Δανούβιον ἡ ἐπιχώριος οἴδε γλῶττα καλεῖν.

უწყიან ყოველთა მდინარე ისტროჲ სიდიდითა და იეფობითა, რაოდენი მოაქუს მდინარეთა მქონებელი საჩინოებისაჲ, რომლისაჲ დანუბ წოდებაჲ იცის მსოფლიომან ენამან.

  • იეფობაჲ abundance
  • საჩინოებაჲ distinction, brightness

Οὗτος οὖν ὁ θαυμαστὸς Νικήτας, Γοτθικῶν σπερμάτων ἐκφὺς καὶ τιμὴν τὴν πρώτην παρ᾽ ἐκεῖνοις λαχὼν

ამათ გუთთა თესლისაგან საკჳრველი ესე ნიკიტა აღმოეცენა და პირველობისა პატივი ხუდა მათ მიერ.

  • თესლი seed
  • საკჳრველი wondrous
  • აღმოცენება to sprout, grow, come up
  • ხუდომა to be bestowed

διά τε τὸ περιφανὲς τοῦ γένους καὶ τὴν ἄλλην τοῦ σώματός τε καὶ τῆς ψυχῆς εὐφυῖαν ὅσην καὶ δεξιότητα, οὐ Γότθου ἦν τὸν βίον, οὐ τοὺς τρόπους, οὐδὲ τὴν πίστιν.

ხოლო ტომთა საჩინოებისათჳსცა და სხჳსა სულისა და ჴორცთა აზნაურებისა და სიმარჯჳსა არა გუთ იყო ცხორებითა, არცა სახითა, არცა სარწმუნოებითა;

  • აზნაურებაჲ honor, nobility
  • სიმარჯუეჲ goodness, kindness; proficiency

Ἐνίκα γὰρ ἡ μὲν γνώμη τὸ γένος, τὸ δὲ εἰς Χριστὸν φίλτρον τὴν βάρβαρον δόξαν, ὁ δὲ τῶν ἀρετῶν ἔρως τὴν Γότθικὴν ἀκρασίαν καὶ ἀγριότητα.

რამეთუ ცნობაჲ სძლევდა თჳთებასა, ხოლო ქრისტეს მიმართი სარწმუნოებაჲ ბარბაროზებრსა ნებასა და სათნოებათა ტრფიალებაჲ გუთებრივსა უზავ-ველურებასა.

  • ძლევა to conquer
  • ნებაჲ will, wish
  • სათნოებაჲ goodness, virtue
  • ტრფიალებაჲ love
  • უზავ-ველურებაჲ irreconcilability, unruliness, implacability

From § 3

Οὔρφιλος δὲ διάδοχος μὲν τῶν ἀρχιερατικῶν θεσμῶν ἐχρημάτιζε Θεοφίλου, συμπαρὼν δὲ αὐτῷ πάλαι κατὰ τὴν Νίκαιαν καὶ τὰ ἴσα φρονῶν,

ხოლო ურფილოს იყო მონაცვალე მღდელთმთავრობისა შჯულთა თეოფილესთა, ვითარცა ძუელვე მის თანა ყოფილი ნიკეას და სწორ მზრახვალი მისი,

  • მონაცვალეჲ inheriting, inheritor
  • სწორი similar, like
  • მზრახვალი counseling, advising, speaking

συνήδρευσεν ὕστερον καὶ οἷς ὅτ᾽ ἐν Κωνσταντινουπόλει ἁγία καὶ οἰκουμενικὴ δευτέρα συνεκροτήθη σύνοδος.

რომელი თანა-მოდასე იქმნა უკუანაჲსკნელ კრებასა მას წმიდასა მსოფლიოდ მეორესა კოსტანტინოპოლის შეკრებულსა.

  • თანა-მოდასეჲ similar, like
  • უკუანაჲსკნელი last

Οὗτος ἀνὴρ λόγιός τε καὶ νουνεχὴς ὢν, τύπους γραμμάτων καὶ ἀπηχήσεις αὐτῶν τῇ Γότθικῇ συμβαίνοντας ἐξεῦρε φωνῇ·

ამან კაცმან ვითარცა გონიერმან და სიტყჳერმან სახენი ასოთანი და ჴმიანობანი მათნი შესატყჳსად მოუპოვნა გუთთა ენასა,

  • ასოჲ letter
  • ჴმიანობაჲ pronunciation, sound
  • შესატყჳსი corresponding
  • მოპოვნება to invent (also, to win, earn)

τούτοις τε τὴν ἱερὰν ἡμῶν Γραφὴν καὶ θεόπνευστον ἀπὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος εἰς τὴν Γότθικὴν γλῶσσαν μεταβαλὼν τοὺς ὁμοφίλους ἐκμανθάνειν πάσῃ σπουδῇ παρεσκεύασε.

რომლითა წმიდანი და ღმრთივ სულიერნი წერილნი ჩუენნი ელადელთაგან გუთთა ენად მიცვალებითა ყოველთა თანა-მეტომეთა მისთა მოსწრაფებით სწავლად მოუმზადნა.

  • მიცვალებაჲ death (?!)
  • თანა-მეტომაჲ compatriot
  • მოსწრაფებაჲ effort, striving
  • მომზადება to prepare

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 66 (Book of Adam 11)   Leave a comment

This is our second passage from the Georgian Book of Adam in OGPS, the first being № 26, where some basic data about the text will be found. The text for today is from p. 111.18-27 in the edition (the paragraphs are not numbered in the ed., but they are in Mahé’s FT; these at least roughly correspond to the paragraph numbers in Stone’s ed. and tr. of the Armenian version: see The Penitence of Adam, CSCO 429, p. 4//430, p. 3). Below I give the Georgian text, broken into smaller chunks and accompanied by Mahé’s FT and some vocabulary notes, and finally an ET follows.

ესე რა ესმა ევას, რამეთუ ეშმაკი არს, რომელმანცა აცთუნა იგი, დავარდა იგი წინაშე მისსა,

Quand Ève entendit cela, que c’était le diable qui l’avait trompée, elle tomba devant lui

  • ა-ცთუნ-ა aor 3sg ცთუნება to tempt, deceive, seduce
  • და-ვარდ-ა aor 3sg დავრდომა to fall down (cf. დავრდომილსა below)

ხოლო ადამს ორ წილ ექმნა სალმობაჲ იგი ევაჲსი, რამეთუ ხედვიდა იგი მას დავრდომილსა ქუეყანასა ზედა ვითარცა მკუდარსა.

et la douleur d’Adam pour Ève en fut doublée, car il la voyait tombée par terre comme une morte.

  • წილი part, lot
  • სალმობაჲ pain, grief, sorrow
  • ხედვ-იდ-ა impf 3sg ხედვა to see
  • დავრდომილი fallen down
  • მკუდარი dead

შეჭუვნა და თქუა დიდითა კუნესითა, ჴმა-ყო:

Il s’affligea et dit en s’écriant dans un grand gémissement:

  • შე-ჭუვნ-ა aor 3sg შეჭუვნება to be/become sad, sorry, sorrowful
  • კუნესაჲ moaning, groaning, sighing
  • ჴმა-ყო aor 3sg ჴმა-ყოფა to cry out

“ვაჲ შენდა, მბრძოლსა მაგას ჩუენსა, რაჲ ბოროტი გიყავთ შენ, რამეთუ შენითა შეტყუვილითა იყო გამოჴდაჲ ჩუენი სამოთხით.

Malheur à toi, notre ennemi! Quel mal t’avons-nous fait? Car c’est par tes calomnies que s’est produite notre sortie du paradis.

  • მბრძოლი fighter, warrior, combatant, enemy
  • გ-ი-ყავ-თ aor 1pl O2 ყოფა to do
  • შეტყუვილი deception, lying, cheating
  • გამოჴდაჲ casting out, chasing away, expulsion
  • სამოთხეჲ garden (for this and the previous word, cf. the sentence from Kurc’ikiże, ქართულის ვერსიები აპოკრიფებისა მოციქულთა შესახებ, 31.34-35, cited in Sarjveladze-Fähnrich 147b s.v. გამოჴდაჲ: შენ ჰყავ პირველისა მის კაცისა გამოჴდაჲ სამოთხით “Du hast den ersten Menschen aus dem Paradies verstoßen”)

უკუეთუ ჩუენ განგაგდეთ შენდა ჩუენდა მომართ არს მდურვაჲ შენი?

Est-ce parce que nous t’aurions (fait) chasser que tu as contre nous ta colère?

  • გან-გ-ა-გდ-ე-თ aor 1pl O2 განგდება to cast out, throw away
  • მდურვაჲ charge, accusation, reproach

ანუ ჩუენ მიერ მოგეძრცუა დიდებაჲ შენი?

Et (serait-ce) par nous que ta gloire t’aurait été ravie?

  • მო-გ-ე-ძრცუ-ა aor pass 3sg O2 მოძრცუა (or მოძურცა?) to rob, steal, plunder (words built on the same root, but with a different preverb, include აღძრცჳლი stolen, plundered; აღძურცაჲ plundering; განმძრცუელი robber; განუძრცუელი not plundered, looted; განძრცუაჲ plundering, looting)

ანუ სადამე ჩუენითა შექმნითა ეგრეთ ნაკლულევან ხარ, ანუ ჩუენ ხოლო ვართა დაბადებულნი ღმრთისანი, რამეთუ ჩუენ ხოლო გუბრძავ{თ}?”

Est-ce, en quelque façon, de notre fait que tu es en telle misère? Ou sommes-nous les seules créatures de Dieu, pour que tu nous combattes seuls?

  • სადამე sometime, anytime, once, soon
  • შექმნაჲ making, causing
  • ნაკლულევანი lacking, incomplete, poor
  • ვ-არ-თ-ა pres 1pl ყოფა to be + interr. particle
  • დაბადებული created, creature, creation
  • გუ-ბრძავ{-თ} K’urc’ikiże’s text has გუბრძავთ (variant given in A: გვბძავთ; not helpful), and Mahé translates this sentence: “Est-ce, en quelque façon, de notre fait que tu es en telle misère? Ou sommes-nous les seules créatures de Dieu, pour que tu nous combattes seuls?” The Armenian (ed. Stone) has for the last part of the sentence զի մարտնչիս ընդ մեզ ի տարապարտուց “that you fight with us for no reason” (the Latin [ed. Meyer], textually unrelated directly, of course, has quid persequeris nos, inimice, usque ad mortem impie et invidiose?) On the basis of the Armenian, we would expect the Georgian verb to be pres 2sg O1pl, that is, გუბრძავ (with no -თ). The form as given in the edition can only be analyzed as pres 2pl O1pl, a plural subject does not fit the context. An unheralded shift to second-person plural with the devil and his fallen angels in view seems unlikely. (Pres 1pl O2 would be გბრძავთ.) So the -თ, which can only mark the number of the subject, must be an error, and indeed Mahé (p. 234) notes that we should read გუბრძავ, not გუბრძავთ.

(Many thanks to Kevin Tuite and Jost Gippert for discussing the last verb form with me.)

Here is an English translation of the passage:

When Eve heard that it was the devil who had deceived her, she fell down before him, but Eve’s sorrow was doubled for Adam, for he was seeing her fallen down like a corpse. He was sad and said with great sorrow, he cried out, “Damn you, enemy of ours! What evil have we done to you that our expulsion from the garden was due to your deception? If we have cast you out, is this the reason for your reproach against us? Or has your glory been stolen by us? Or are you somehow by our doing lacking something, or are we alone God’s creations that you are fighting only against us?”

Armenian love-verse from a sixteenth-century catholicos   4 comments

I’ve been reading lately through Michael E. Stone, Adam and Eve in the Armenian Traditions, Fifth through Seventeenth Centuries, Early Judaism and its Literature 38 (Atlanta, 2013), a thick volume that collects, in Armenian and English, references to Adam & Eve, the serpent, the Garden of Eden, etc., from over a millennium of Armenian literature. There are, of course, very many interesting passages that students of the history of biblical interpretation, patristics, and Armenian will appreciate. Especially for the last named group, students of Armenian, here are a few lines of a love poem by Grigoris Ałt’amarc’i (1480-1544), kat’ołikos from 1510 (see Stone, p. 688). Stone (p. 636) publishes the lines from Mayis Avdalbegyab, Գրիգորիս Աղթամարցի, XVI դ. Ուսումնասիրություն, քննական բնագրեր եւ ծանոթություններ (Grigoris Ałt’amarc’i: Study, Critical Texts, and Commentary) (Erevan, 1963), which I do not have access to. These are apparently lines 215-218 from the poem. These lines rhyme in -ին.

Թէ տեսանեմ ըզքեզ կրկին,

Լուսաւորի միտքս իմ մթին,

Եւ տամ համբոյր շրթանց քոյին,

Նա վերանամ ես ի յԱդին։

Vocabulary:

  • տեսանեմ, տեսի to see
  • կրկին doubly, again
  • լուսաւոեմ, -եցի to illuminate, brighten
  • միտք, մտաց, մտօք mind
  • մթին gloomy, dark
  • տամ, ետու to give
  • համբոյր, -բուրից kiss (cf. Geo. ამბორი)
  • շուրթն, շրթան, շրթունք, -թանց lip
  • քոյին a longer form of քո
  • վերանամ, -ացայ to rise, ascend, leave

Here is Stone’s translation:

If I see you again,

My dark mind is illuminated,

And I give a kiss to your lips,

Indeed I ascend to Eden.

 

A snake in the belly: An episode in the life of Symeon the Stylite (Armenian synaxarion)   1 comment

I have often turned here to Bayan’s ed. of the Armenian synaxarion in PO (see here for the appropriate volumes for each month). Thanks to archive.org, these volumes are all easily accessible, and thus it makes for a convenient reading-text. My colleague, Ed Mathews, in his recently inaugurated series of volumes providing an Armenian synaxarion text with facing ET, briefly sets forth the known versions of the synaxarion in Armenian and also points out that Bayan’s ed. is not quite what he says it is, namely, that of Tēr Israel (pp. xvii-xix). Others, too, have discussed the state of things with the Armenian synaxarion versions (see the bibliography below).

Among HMML’s collections there are, of course, some synaxarion manuscripts, so for today, here is one such manuscript, with a single episode from one of today’s commemorations, that of Symeon the Stylite, compared with Bayan’s edition. The manuscript in question is APIB (Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul, Balat) 1, dated 1637, and with very clear Bolorgir script. Our passage appears on p. 72, col. b, lines 10-20; the corresponding text in Bayan’s ed. is in PO 5: 470.

Here, then, is the manuscript image, the transcribed text of the manuscript and Bayan’s ed. aligned by sentence, some vocabulary and grammar notes for students of the language, and English translations of each.

APIB 1, p. 72, col. b, lines 10-20

APIB 1, p. 72, col. b, lines 10-20

A = APIB 1

B = Bayan

A Կին մի ի գիշերի ջուր ըմպելով. եւ ընդ ջրոյն գնաց յորովայն նորա ձագ աւձի։

B Կին ոմն ի գիշերի ջուր ըմպելով՝ եմուտ յորովայն նորա ընդ ջրոյն ձագ օձի,

  • ըմպեմ, արբի, ա՛րբ to drink (here inf.instr.)
  • գնամ, գնացի to go
  • որովայն, -ից belly
  • ձագ, -ուց young (of a particular animal)
  • աւձ, -ից serpent
  • մտանեմ, մտիմ մուտ to enter

A եւ սնեալ աճեաց ի փորն՝ եւ յո՛յժ չարչարէր ըզկինն։

B եւ սնեալ ի փորին՝ աճեաց եւ յոյժ չարչարէր զկինն.

  • սնանիմ, սնայ to be nourished, fed
  • աճեմ, -եցի to grow, increase
  • փոր, -ոյ/-ի belly, abdomen, insides, cavity
  • յոյժ very, very much, considerably
  • չարչարեմ, -եցի to torment, cause pain

A եւ նա՛ գնացեալ առ ս(ուր)բն սիմէոն եւ ասաց զկիրս անձինն աղաչելով զնա՝ զի աւգնեսցէ՛ նմա։

B եւ գնացեալ առ երանելին աղաչեաց։

  • ասեմ, ասացի to say
  • կիրք, կրից (pl. tantum) suffering, pain, torment, passions, emotion, sentiment
  • անձն, անձին, անձանց person, being, mind, heart, self
  • աղաչեմ, -եցի to supplicate, pray
  • աւգնեմ, -եցի to help, assist

A Եւ ընդ աղօ՛թել սրբոյն ել աւձն ընդ բերան կնոջն.

B Եւ սուրբն Սիմէոն աղօթիւք եհան զօձն ընդ բերան կնոջն.

  • աղօտեմ, -եցի to pray, intercede
  • ելանեմ, ելի to go out
  • աղօթք, -թից (pl. tantum) prayer
  • հանեմ, հանի to draw out, remove, take away

A եւ անկեալ յերկիր սատակեցաւ։

B եւ առժամայն սատակեցաւ

  • անկանիմ, անկայ to fall
  • սատակեմ, -եցի to kill, slay, slaughter, destroy (here aor m/p 3sg)
  • առժանայն immediately, suddenly

A Եւ է՛ր չափով կանգուն մի։

B եւ էր կանգուն մի։

  • չափ, -ուց/-ոց measure, measurement, quantity, proportion
  • կանգուն, -գնոց cubit (also straight, standing, firm, stable)

ET of the APIB 1 text

While a woman was drinking water at night, a young serpent went into her belly along with the water, and it was nourished and grew in her insides and was causing the woman considerable pain. So she went to Saint Symeon and spoke of her suffering, asking him to help her, and at the praying of the saint the serpent went out through the woman’s mouth, fell to the ground, and died. In size it was one cubit.

ET of Bayan’s text

While a certain woman was drinking water at night, a young serpent entered her belly along with the water, and it was nourished in her insides and grew and was causing the woman considerable pain. So she went to the blessed [Symeon] in supplication, and with his prayer Saint Symeon drew the serpent out through the woman’s mouth, and immediately it died. It was one cubit.

Bibliography

Adontz, N. “Note sur les synaxaires arméniens.” Revue de l’Orient Chrétien 24 (1924): 211–218.

Mathews, Jr., Edward G. On this Day: The Armenian Church Synaxarion, January. Provo, 2014.

Mécérian, J. “Introduction à l’étude des synaxaires arméniens.” Bulletin Arménologique, Mélanges de l’Université de S. Joseph 43 (1953): 99–128.

Nersessian, S. Der. “Le synaxaire arménien de Grégoire VII d’Anazarbe.” Analecta Bollandiana 68 (1950): 261–285.
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