Archive for the ‘Gospel of Luke’ Tag

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 64 (Luke 4:34)   Leave a comment

Today’s lines are from the Gospel: the demoniac’s words of recognition to Jesus in Lk 4:34. The Georgian is straightforward, but first, here’s the Greek:

ἔα, τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ; ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς; οἶδά σε τίς εἶ, ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ.

On ἔα, an exclamation especially common in Greek drama, see LSJ here; some translators, however, ancient (e.g. Peshitta, Harqlean, Armenian,* Vulgate) and modern (e.g. KJV), have taken the word to be the pres impv 2sg of ἐᾶν, spelled (and accented) the same way. For the Hebrew Vorlage (מה לי ולך) of τί ἐμοὶ/ἡμῖν καὶ σοί (cf. Lk 8:28, Jn 2:4), cf. Jdg 11:12, 1 Kgs 17:18, 2 Kgs 3:13; Hos 14:9 (Eng 14:8), 2 Chr 35:21.

Here’s the Georgian Adishi text:

ეჰა, რაჲ არს ჩემი და შენი, იესუ ნაზორეველო? მოხუედ წარწყმედად ჩუენდა, გიცით შენ, ვინ ხარ წმიდაჲ ეგე ღმრთისაჲ.

  • ეჰა An exclamation, this Georgian version, along with the Pre-Athonite and Giorgi’s, thus standing apart from both Syriac and Armenian.
  • მო-ხ-უედ aor 2sg მოსლვა to come
  • წარწყმედა to destroy
  • გ-ი-ც-ი-თ pres 1pl O2 ცოდნა to know (cf. Aronson, §9.1.4)

*The Armenian in Künzle’s ed. is թուղացո՛; the Zohrab Bible has the spelling թուլացո՛. In either case, it’s aor impv 2sg թուղ/լացուցանեմ, թուղ/լացուցի to let, permit, relax, loosen (cf. Nor Baṙgirk’ 1: 821a-b, Künzle, 2: 277).

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 56 (Lk 1:15)   1 comment

In the foretelling of John the Baptist’s birth, the archangel Gabriel tells John’s father-to-be, Zacharias, that John should abstain from drinking alcohol (Luke 1:15):

ἔσται γὰρ μέγας ἐνώπιον [τοῦ] κυρίου,
καὶ οἶνον καὶ σίκερα οὐ μὴ πίῃ,
καὶ πνεύματος ἁγίου πλησθήσεται
ἔτι ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὐτοῦ

This is all seemingly simple enough, but I was surprised to find an interesting reading here in one of the Old Georgian versions of the text. Here it is in the Adishi, Pre-Athonite, and Athonite texts (this verse not extant in ms A-89 or Vind. georg. 2):

Adishi რამეთუ იყოს დიდ წინაშე უფლისა და ღჳნოჲ და სათრობელი და იყი არა სუას და სულითა წმიდითა სავსე იყოს მიერვე მუცლით დედისა თჳსისაჲთ.

  • ღჳნოჲ wine
  • სათრობელი intoxicating drink
  • იყი strong drink
  • სუას aor conj 3s სუმა to drink
  • სავსეჲ full
  • მუცელი belly

PA რამეთუ იყოს დიდ წინაშე უფლისა და ღჳნოჲ და თაფლუჭი არა სუას და სულითა წმიდითა აღივსოს მიერვე დედისმუცლით მისითგან.

  • თაფლუჭი mead (cf. თაფლი honey; see excursus below)
  • აღ-ი-ვს-ოს aor conj 3s აღვსება to fill (NB the CV -ი- > to be filled)

At რამეთუ იყოს დიდ წინაშე უფლისა და ღჳნოჲ და თაფლუჭი არა სუას და სულითა წმიდითა აღივსოს მიერვე დედისმუცლით მისითგან.

In addition, here is an image from the Gospel manuscript BnF géo. 28, f. 111v, col. b., ll. 14-20, which is a 13th-cent. witness to the Athonite version:

bnf_geo_28_f111v_lk1_15

Here is the text from transcribed from nusxuri into mxedruli and with abbreviations resolved:

რ(ამეთუ) იყოს დიდ წ(ინაშ)ე ო(ჳფლ)ისა და ღჳნოჲ და თაფლოჳჭი არა სუას და ს(უ)ლითა წ(მიდ)ითა აღივსოს მიერვე დედისმოჳცლით მისითგ(ა)ნ.

The Adishi text, then, has three in the list of prohibited drinks, while the Pre-Athonite and Athonite have two, just like the Greek. Furthermore, neither the second nor the third in the Adishi list is თაფლუჭი, which we find elsewhere paired with ღჳნოჲ in the “wine and strong drink” passages of the Bible (e.g. Lev 10:9, Num 6:3). (Of the same root as the second word in the Adishi list, სათრობელი, we see დამათრობელი in Jdg 13:4, which also has ძმარი “vinegar” and ყურძენი “grape”.)

Since, alongside Greek, both Armenian and Syriac enter into discussions of the textual lineage of the Georgian Gospels, I’ll give them both here, too. For Syriac, the Old Syriac (Sinaiticus), the Peshitta, and the Ḥarqlean all have simply ḥamrā w-šakrā lā neštē. In Armenian, this part of the verse reads, գինի եւ աւղի մի́ արբցէ. So the witnesses for this verse in both of these languages give simply a bipartite prohibition, just like the two later Georgian versions, not a tripartite one like that of the Adishi text.

********************

On honey-water, or mead

As pointed out above, the word that stands sometimes in the Georgian versions for σίκερα (traditionally “strong drink”, but probably better, “beer”) is თაფლუჭი “mead”, derived from the word თაფლი “honey”. As is well known, mead is a thing and a word with a long history in at least some Indo-European societies (see Pokorny; Buck, Synonyms, §§ 5.84, 5.91). The modern English “mead” goes back to medu in Old English, where there are many derivatives appearing in Beowulf and elsewhere (all of these in Bosworth-Toller), e.g.

  • medoærn banquet-house, place to drink mead
  • medubenc mead-bench
  • medoburg city of mead-drinkers
  • medudrēam mead-revelry
  • medoful mead-cup
  • medoheal mead-hall
  • meoduscenc mead-draft
  • meodosetl mead-seat
  • medostīg path to the mead-hall

(“Honey” itself in OE is unrelated: hunig; see PIE *kₑnəkó- “golden” in Pokorny.) Here are a few other words of the same origin as this word medu in other IE languages (PIE *médhu-). Sanskrit madhu- was used for sweet drinks, including soma, and in line with Avestan maδu- is the Middle and later Persian may “wine” (Mackenzie 55, Steingass 1357). Greek μέθυ (> μεθύω to be drunk > μεθύσκω to make drunk) is a poetic word for wine; it does not mean “mead”. (The latter is μελίτειον, as in Plut. Quaest. Conv. 672b: καὶ μέχρι νῦν τῶν τε βαρβάρων οἱ μὴ ποιοῦντες οἶνον μελίτειον πίνουσιν. Mod. Gr. has ὑδρόμελι like Latin hydromeli, with derivatives in the Romance languages). In Russian, “honey” is мёд (for the color, cf. медь “copper”). The Slavic words for “bear” derive partly from this root, e.g. Russian медведь (honey-eater; cf. Buck, § 3.73). (In Old Georgian, “bear” is დაფჳ [modern დაფვი], as in 1Sam 17:34 JerLect. The word does not sound dissimilar to თაფლი “honey”: should we posit a direct etymological link?) Note that Chubinov/ჩუბინაშვილი (Грузинско-Русско-Французскій Словаръ/Dictionnaire géorgien-russe-français [Saint Petersburg, 1840], 220) defines თაფლუჭი with “сикера” — σίκερα! — and “медовика”.

Lastly, for one more (non-mead) term for drinks, to return to Lk 1:15, Gothic has

jah wein jah leiþu ni drigkid

The first noun is, of course, “wine”, and the second is cognate with OE līþ, “strong drink” (cf. the first element in German Leithaus).

More of the Christmas story in Old Georgian (with lexicon)   Leave a comment

One year ago, I shared a document with part of the Christmas story in three Old Georgian versions (Adishi, Pre-Athonite revision, and Giorgi’s version) accompanied by a lexicon and complete verb concordance. Here’s an updated version of the same document, now with Lk 1:26-35 and Lk 2:1-20 and an augmented lexicon. Aside simply from Georgian reading practice, a careful reading alongside the Greek (and Armenian and Syriac) will provide fodder for text critics, but even on the surface, the addition from Lk 1:42 (“blessed are you among women”) in 1:28 P and G is noticeable. Lk 1:32 A has an unusual reading with მადლი (“blessing, grace; power, ability”) in მოსცეს მას უფალმან ღმერთმან მადლი – საყდარი დავითის, მამისა თჳსისაჲ (“the Lord God will give him blessing, the throne of David his father”); I do not yet know if there are parallels elsewhere.

I’ve always found studying synoptic text presentations both instructive and enjoyable. If you do, too, here you are:

xmas_story_old_georgian

 

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 38 (Luke, Rich young ruler)   Leave a comment

Dɪꜱᴛᴀɴᴄᴇ, n. The only thing that the rich are willing for the poor to call theirs, and keep.

– Ambrose Bierce, The Devil’s Dictionary

Below is the encounter between Jesus and the Rich Young Ruler in Lk 18:18-23, the version here from Ms A-89 (ed. L. Kajaiam [Tbilisi, 1984], text in asomtavruli and mxedruli at TITUS here). This, as will be clear momentarily, is a xanmeti text. Put very simply, this means that 3rd person objects and 2nd person subjects are marked with ხ (called ხან in Georgian), in later texts marked otherwise.

18 Καὶ ἐπηρώτησέν τις αὐτὸν ἄρχων λέγων· διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ, τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω;

ႣႠ ႾႩႨႧႾႠ ႥႨႬႫႤ ႫႠႱ ႫႧႠႥႠႰႫႠႬ ႣႠ ႾႵ~Ⴀ ႫႭႻႶႭჃႠႰႭ ႱႠႾႨ ႤႰႭ ႰႠჂ ႱႠႵႫჁ ႥႵႫႬႤ Ⴐ~Ⴀ ႺႾႭႥႰႤႡႠჂ ႱႠႭჃႩႭჃႬႭჂ ႣႠႥႨႫႩჃႣႰႭ

და ხკითხა ვინმე მას მთავარმან და ხქ(ოჳ)ა მოძღოჳარო სახიერო რაჲ საქმჱ ვქმნე რ(აჲთ)ა ცხოვრებაჲ საოჳკოჳნოჲ დავიმკჳდრო

  • ხ-კითხ-ა aor 3sg O3 კითხვა to ask
  • მთავარი leader, chief, prince
  • ხ-ქოჳ-ა = ხრქუა aor 3sg O3 to say (one sII stem of სიტყუა is from რქუმა)
  • მოძღოჳარი teacher
  • სახიერი kind, benevolent
  • საქმეჲ thing
  • ვ-ქმნ-ე aor conj 1sg ქმნა to do
  • ცხოვრებაჲ life
  • საოჳკოჳნოჲ eternal
  • და-ვ-ი-მკჳდრ-ო aor conj 1sg დამკჳდრება to gain

19 εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν; οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεός.

ႾႰႵ~Ⴀ ႫႠႱ Ⴈ~Ⴣ ႰႠჂႱႠ ႫႤႲႷჃ ႫႤ ႱႠႾႨႤႰႨႧ ႠႰႠႥႨႬ ႠႰႱ ႱႠႾႨႤႰ ႢႠႰႬႠ ႫႾႭႪႭჂ Ⴖ~Ⴈ

ხრქ(ოჳ)ა მას ი(ესო)ჳ რაჲსა მეტყჳ მე [სახიე]რით არავინ არს სახიერ გარნა მხოლოჲ ღ(მერთ)ი

  • მ-ე-ტყჳ pres 2sg O1 სიტუა to speak
  • სახიერით NB case usage: instr
  • გარნა except
  • მხოლოჲ alone, only

20 τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας· μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, μὴ φονεύσῃς, μὴ κλέψῃς, μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα.

ႫႺႬႤႡႠႬႨ ႾႨႺႬႨ ႬႭჃ ႾႨႫႰႭჃႸႤႡ ႬႭჃ ႩႠႺ ႾႩႪႠႥ ႬႭჃ ႾႨႮႠႰႠႥ ႬႭჃ ႺႨႪႱႠ ႾႼႠႫႤႡ ႮႠႲႨႥ ႾႤႺ ႫႠႫႠႱႠ ႸႤႬႱႠ ႣႠ ႣႤႣႠႱႠ ႸႤႬႱႠ

[მც]ნებანი ხიცნი ნოჳ ხიმროჳშებ ნოჳ კაც ხკლავ ნოჳ ხიპარავ ნოჳ ცილსა ხწამებ პატივ ხეც მამასა შენსა და დედასა შენ[სა]

  • მცნებაჲ command
  • ხ-ი-ცნ-ი aor iter 2sg ცნობა to know
  • ხ-ი-მროჳშებ pres 2sg მრუჭება to commit adultery (cf. მრუშებაჲ whore)
  • კაცი person
  • ხ-კლავ pres 2sg O3 კლვა to kill
  • ხ-ი-პარავ pres 2sg პარვა to steal
  • ცილი lie (mendacium)
  • ხ-წამებ pres 2sg O3 წამება to bear witness
  • პატივი honor
  • ხ-ე-ც aor imv 2sg O3 ცემა to give

21 ὁ δὲ εἶπεν· ταῦτα πάντα ἐφύλαξα ἐκ νεότητος.

Ⴞ~ ႫႠႬ ႧႵ~Ⴀ ႤႢႤ Ⴗ~ႪႨ ႣႠႥႨႫႠႰႾႤ ႱႨႷႰႫႨႧ ႹႤႫႨႧႢႠႬ

ხ(ოლო) მ[ან] თქ(ოჳ)ა ეგე ყ(ოვე)ლი [და]ვიმარხე სიყრმით ჩემითგან

  • თქ(ოჳ)ა aor 3sg to say (another sII stem of სიტყუა is from თქუმა)
  • და-ვ-ი-მარხ-ე aor 1sg დამარხვა to keep, preserve
  • სიყრმეჲ youth, childhood

22 ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ· ἔτι ἕν σοι λείπει· πάντα ὅσα ἔχεις πώλησον καὶ διάδος πτωχοῖς, καὶ ἕξεις θησαυρὸν ἐν [τοῖς] οὐρανοῖς, καὶ δεῦρο ἀκολούθει μοι.

ႾႤႱႫႠ ႰႠ ႤႱႤ Ⴈ~ჃႱ ႾႰႵ~Ⴀ ႫႠႱ ႤႰႧႨႶႠ ႤႱႤ ႢႠႩႪႱ ႸႤႬ Ⴗ~ႪႨ ႰႠჂ ႢႠႵႭჃႱ ႸႤႬ ႢႠႬႷႨႣႤ ႣႠ ႫႨႾႤႺ ႢႪႠႾႠႩႧႠ ႣႠ ႢႠႵႭჃႬႣႤႱ ႱႠႭჃႬႿჁ ႺႠႧႠ ႸႨႬႠ ႣႠ ႫႭႥႤႣ ႸႤႫႭႫႨႣႤႢ ႫႤ

ხესმა რა ესე ი(ესო)ჳს ხრქ(ოჳ)ა მას ერთიღა ესე გაკლს შენ ყ(ოვე)ლი რაჲ გაქოჳს შენ განყიდე და მიხეც გლახაკთა და გაქოჳნდეს საოჳნჯჱ ცათა შინა და მოვედ შემომიდეგ მე

  • ხ-ე-სმ-ა aor 3sg O3 სმენა to hear (indirect verb)
  • -ღა yet, still
  • გ-ა-კლ-ს pres 3sg O2 კლება to lack (indirect verb; cf. the parallel passage in Mt 19:20 A-89 რაჲღა მაკლს მე, with first person grammatical object)
  • გ-ა-ქოჳ-ს pres 3sg O2 აქუს to have (indirect verb)
  • გან-ყიდ-ე aor imv 2sg განყიდვა to sell (cf. ყიდვა to buy)
  • მი-ხ-ე-ც aor imv 2sg O3 მიცემა to give
  • გლახაკი poor
  • გ-ა-ქოჳნ-დეს pres conj 3sg O2 აქუს to have
  • საოჳნჯეჲ treasure, possession
  • ცაჲ heaven
  • მო-ვედ aor imv 2sg მოსლვა to come
  • შემო-მ-ი-დეგ aor imv 2sg O1 შემოდგომა to follow

23 ὁ δὲ ἀκούσας ταῦτα περίλυπος ἐγενήθη· ἦν γὰρ πλούσιος σφόδρα.

ႾႤႱႫႠ ႰႠჂ ႤႱႤ ႫႼႭჃႾႠႰႤ ႾႨႵႫႬႠ Ⴐ~ ႾႨႷႭ ႨႢႨ ႫႣႨႣႠႰ Ⴔ~Ⴃ

ხესმა რაჲ ესე მწოჳხარე ხიქმნა რ(ამეთოჳ) ხიყო იგი მდიდარ ფ(რია)დ

  • მწოჳხარეჲ sad [an identical word means “blind”!]
  • ხ-ი-ქმნ-ა aor 3sg O3 ქმნა to do
  • ხ-ი-ყო aor 3sg O3 (!) ყოფა to be [the apparent O3 marker on this form, which will later be simply იყო, is unexpected and it has not been certainly explained: see Kevin Tuite, “Das Präfix x- im Frühgeorgischen,” Georgica  13/14 (1990): 34-61, with an Eng. version here]
  • მდიდარი rich

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 35 (Lk 12:27)   Leave a comment

Below is Lk 12:27 in the Adishi text. A comparison with this verse as it appears in the xanmeti manuscript A-844, the Pre-Athonite version, and the Athonite version reveals only minor differences, two of which are mentioned below.

κατανοήσατε τὰ κρίνα πῶς αὐξάνει· οὐ κοπιᾷ οὐδὲ νήθει· λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν, οὐδὲ Σολομὼν ἐν πάσῃ τῇ δόξῃ αὐτοῦ περιεβάλετο ὡς ἓν τούτων.

განიცადენით შროშანნი, ვითარ-იგი აღორძნდის: არცა შურებინ, არცა სთავნ. ხოლო გეტყჳ თქუენ, რამეთუ არცა სოლომონ ყოველსა დიდებასა მისსა შეიმოსა, ვითარცა ერთი ამათგანი.

  • გან-ი-ცად-ენ-ი-თ aor impv 2pl განცდა to see, look at
  • შროშანი lily (cf. Armenian շուշան [this verse begins Հայեցարուք ընդ շուշանն], Syr. šuša(n)tā, etc.)
  • აღორძნ-დ-ი-ს aor iter 3sg აღორძინება to grow
  • შურ-ებ-ი-ნ pres iter 3sg შურება to hurry; suffer (the other versions have შურების pres 3sg)
  • სთავ-ნ pres iter 3sg სთვა to spin (the other versions have სთავს pres 3sg)
  • გ-ე-ტყ-ჳ pres 1sg O2 სიტყუა to say
  • შე-ი-მოს-ა aor 3sg შემოსა to clothe, put on

The Christmas story (Luke 2) in Old Georgian   3 comments

As I mentioned in a recent post, I’ve been at work on a little document presenting the Christmas story in Old Georgian. From a philological perspective, and from the perspective of language pedagogy, the Gospels stand out as a special group of texts, because in many languages we have multiple translations or revisions of earlier translations. In addition, of course, there is the fact that a number of passages exist in more or less similar versions across the four Gospels. All that to say, the Gospels offer students of this or that language and those interested in the variety of ways a text may appear in different translations an excellent opportunity for study. (Other genres where similar benefits accrue from the same kind of surviving multiple translations are philosophy and patristics.) The benefit derivable from a study like this to some extent depends on the format of its presentation. (For an excellent presentation of the Syriac Gospels, see George Kiraz’s Comparative Edition of the Syriac Gospels, 4 vols.) A digital presentation of the requisite texts certainly offers promising possibilities, but at least strictly for the texts, a conventional 2-D display with one layer, whether on paper or on screen, can be very valuable for those who read it closely.

From here (unidentified ms).

From here (unidentified ms).

It is this conventional single surface and single layer presentation that I have followed here. Since we’re in the Christmas season now, it’s a fitting time to read over any relevant texts, whether for language practice or some other reason. In the New Testament, the Christmas story, of course, is found in Matthew 1:18-25 and 2:1-12 and in Luke 1:26-38 and 2:1-20. It is only the last section that I have included here. In this document (xmas_story_old_georgian) I’ve given that text verse-by-verse first in Greek as a kind of anchor point, then in Georgian in each of the Adiši, Pre-Athonite, and Athonite redactions, all of which are freely available online thanks to TITUS/Armazi. Following the text in these versions, comes an almost comprehensive lexicon and full verbal concordance, hopefully to make the document a more useful reader for students and because lexical tools for Old Georgian in English are quite meager, and any addition to that small list of instrumenta will, I think, have value. (I have similar documents, too, for the Temptation and Transfiguration pericopes, and outside of the Gospels, some other passages from the rest of the Bible, both OT and NT.)

I welcome any comments on the document, not only corrections, but also remarks on the layout, on the worth of a lexicon for such a small text selection, whether more grammatical information should be supplied (and if so, how much), &c.

As always, thanks for reading and best wishes in your studies!

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 16: Luke 2:7   1 comment

It’s been too long since an update to “Old Georgian phrases and sentences”, so here is a seasonably fitting selection, Luke 2:7, given below in Greek and in three Georgian versions (Adiši, Pre-Athonite, and Athonite [the last two actually identical]).

καὶ ἔτεκεν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς τὸν πρωτότοκον, καὶ ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν καὶ ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ, διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι.

Adiši

და შვა ძე იგი თჳსი პირმშოჲ და შეგრაგნა იგი და შთააწვინა ბაგასა, რამეთუ არა იყო მათდა ადგილ სავანესა მას.

Pre-Athonite and Athonite

და შვა ძჱ იგი მისი პირმშოჲ და შეხჳა იგი სახუეველითა და მიიწვინა იგი ბაგასა, რამეთუ არა იყო მათა ადგილ სავანესა მას.

Starting with the Adiši version, the vocabulary is:

  • შობა to bear (aor 3s)
  • ძეჲ son
  • პირმშოჲ firstborn
  • შეგრაგნა to wrap up (aor 3s)
  • შთაწვინა to lay down (aor 3s)
  • ბაგაჲ manger
  • -და to, for
  • ადგილი place
  • სავანეჲ housing, habitation

And the additional items for the other (identical) versions, differing from the Adiši version for ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν καὶ ἀνέκλινεν, are:

  • შეხუევა to wrap up (aor 3s)
  • სახუეველი cover, wrapper, blanket (NB cognate acc.)
  • მიწვენა to lay down (aor 3s)

I hope to have something to post in a few days for the whole Xmas story from Luke in Old Georgian, so stay tuned!

%d bloggers like this: