Archive for August 2015

Some forms of Old Georgian აქუს “to have”   Leave a comment

While reading in the Gospel of Mark in Old Georgian (Adishi) recently, I came across the words არღარა გაქუნს სარწმუნოებაჲ? (Mk 4:40) Since I knew the story and also had the Greek New Testament open beside me, I knew the text there was οὔπω ἔχετε πίστιν. In the verb გაქუნს I recognized ა-ქუ-ს “to have”, a so-called indirect verb, which for this verb has the possessor marked with the series of prefixes that are also used to mark Georgian objects in other instances (O1 მ-, O2 გ-, etc.) and the thing possessed in the nominative case. This Georgian verb is perhaps first retrieved mentally as the present, აქუს “he has”. But what about the -ნ- in our form, particularly the combination -ნ-ს?

First, let’s look at some other forms of the verb. For accessibility and clarity, we will use examples from the Gospels, in this case all from the Adishi text (available at TITUS). The pres has -ქუ-, as in მ-ა-ქუს I have, გ-ა-ქუს you have, etc.

Lk 7:40
Σίμων, ἔχω σοί τι εἰπεῖν
სიმონ, მაქუს რაჲმე სიტყუად შენდა

Mk 9:50
ἔχετε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἅλα
გაქუს თქუენ მარილი

Lk 18:22
πάντα ὅσα ἔχεις πώλησον
ყოველი, რაჲ გაქუს, განყიდე

Jn 19:7
ἡμεῖς νόμον ἔχομεν
ჩუენ შჯული გუაქუს

The impf has -ქუნ-, as in X-ა-ქუნ-დ-ა:

Lk 19:20
ἰδοῦ ἡ μνᾶ σου ἣν εἶχον ἀποκειμένην ἐν σουδαρίῳ
უფალო, აჰა, ვეცხლი შენი, რომელი მაქუნდა დაკრძალული სუდარსა

Jn 9:41
οὐκ ἂν εἴχετε ἁμαρτίαν
ცოდვაჲმცა არა გაქუნდა

Mt 18:25
μὴ ἔχοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἀποδοῦναι
და ვითარ არარაჲ აქუნდა გარდაჴდად

For the -ნ-, NB also ქონებაჲ “(the fact of) having, possessing” and derivatives (Sarjveladze and Fähnrich, Altgeorgisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch, p. 1279). In addition, when the possessed thing is plural, we have (with third person possessor) ჰ-ქონ-ან, also showing the loss of the version vowel ა-. Kevin Tuite (p.c.) points out a sentence illustrating both forms (singular possessed and plural possessed):

Sinai Mravaltavi, p. 167.35-36 (at TITUS here)

პეტრეს კლიტენი ჰქონან ცათა სასუფეველისანი და ბრძანებაჲ აქუს
Peter has the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and has the command.

Now for some forms in various persons with ა-ქუნ-ს:

Mt 14:17
οὐχ ἔχομεν ὧδε εἰ μὴ πέντε ἄρτους καὶ δύο ἰχθύας
არა გუაქუნს აქა, გარნა ხუთი პური და ორი თევზი

Mt 15:32
οὐχ ἔχουσιν τί φάγωσιν
არაჲ აქუნს, რაჲმცა ჭამეს

Mt 15:34
πόσους ἄρτους ἔχετε;
რაოდენი პური გაქუნს აქა?

Mt 21:26
πάντες γὰρ ὡς προφήτην ἔχουσιν τὸν Ἰωάννην
რამეთუ იოვანე ყოველთა წინაწარმეტყუელად აქუს (variant: აქუნს)

Mt 27:65
ἔχετε κοθστωδίαν
გაქუნს თქუენ დასი

Lk 5:24
ὅτι υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐξουσίαν ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας
რამეთუ ჴელმწიფებაჲ აქუნს ძესა კაცისასა ქუეყანასა ზედა მიტევებად ცოდვათა

Lk 12:19
ψυχή, ἔχεις πολλὰ ἀγαθὰ κείμενα εἰς ἔτη πολλά
სულო, გაქუნს ყოველი კეთილი დაუნჯებული მრავალთა წელთაჲ

And finally, our sentence that started this inquiry:

Mk 4:40
οὔπω ἔχετε πίστιν;
არღარა გაქუნს სარწმუნოებაჲ

These all have present meaning and they all translate a Greek present. (მ-/გ-/გუ-)აქუნს would seem to be, then, an allomorph of (მ-/გ-/გუ-)აქუს with the -ნ- of the root kept intact.

(Very many thanks to Kevin Tuite for discussing some of these forms with me.)

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 64 (Luke 4:34)   Leave a comment

Today’s lines are from the Gospel: the demoniac’s words of recognition to Jesus in Lk 4:34. The Georgian is straightforward, but first, here’s the Greek:

ἔα, τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ; ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς; οἶδά σε τίς εἶ, ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ.

On ἔα, an exclamation especially common in Greek drama, see LSJ here; some translators, however, ancient (e.g. Peshitta, Harqlean, Armenian,* Vulgate) and modern (e.g. KJV), have taken the word to be the pres impv 2sg of ἐᾶν, spelled (and accented) the same way. For the Hebrew Vorlage (מה לי ולך) of τί ἐμοὶ/ἡμῖν καὶ σοί (cf. Lk 8:28, Jn 2:4), cf. Jdg 11:12, 1 Kgs 17:18, 2 Kgs 3:13; Hos 14:9 (Eng 14:8), 2 Chr 35:21.

Here’s the Georgian Adishi text:

ეჰა, რაჲ არს ჩემი და შენი, იესუ ნაზორეველო? მოხუედ წარწყმედად ჩუენდა, გიცით შენ, ვინ ხარ წმიდაჲ ეგე ღმრთისაჲ.

  • ეჰა An exclamation, this Georgian version, along with the Pre-Athonite and Giorgi’s, thus standing apart from both Syriac and Armenian.
  • მო-ხ-უედ aor 2sg მოსლვა to come
  • წარწყმედა to destroy
  • გ-ი-ც-ი-თ pres 1pl O2 ცოდნა to know (cf. Aronson, §9.1.4)

*The Armenian in Künzle’s ed. is թուղացո՛; the Zohrab Bible has the spelling թուլացո՛. In either case, it’s aor impv 2sg թուղ/լացուցանեմ, թուղ/լացուցի to let, permit, relax, loosen (cf. Nor Baṙgirk’ 1: 821a-b, Künzle, 2: 277).

Gregory the Illuminator and saints-for-idols replacement   Leave a comment

Here are a few lines from today’s reading in the Armenian synaxarion (text and FT in Bayan, Aug 25, PO 5: 433). The title of the reading is:

Տօն է ամենասրբուհւոց Աստուածածնին զոր կարգեաց սուրբն Գրիգոր Լուսաւորիչ։

  • ամենասրբուհւ all-holy, very holy
  • Աստուածածնին Mother of God
  • կարգեաց aor 3sg կարգեմ, -եցի to arrange, fix, establish

The Feast of the All-Holy Mother of God, which Saint Gregory the Illuminator Established

This paragraph explains how the famous Armenian saint replaced idol-worship in Caucasia with feast-days for the saints. See similarly Agat’angełos, §§ 48ff., and on Anahit and Aramazd, see Thomson’s remarks in the introduction to his edition and translation of Agat’angełos, pp. xxxviii-xlii. (For an earlier report on Anahit among the Armenians, see Strabo 11.14.16.) Anahit is in other places identified with the Greek Artemis, but here with Aphrodite.

Gregory the Illuminator, of course, was hardly the only idol-basher in the early centuries of Christianity. For Theodosius as one, for example, see Movsēs Xorenac’i, History of the Armenians, § 3.33 (Thomson, ET, p. 286). For a general reflection, see lines 867-884 of Grigor Magistros’ poem recently edited and translated by Abraham Terian: Magnalia Dei: Biblical History in Epic Verse by Grigor Magistros, Hebrew University Armenian Studies 14 (Leuven: Peeters, 2002; ET pp. 61-62, comm. pp. 98-99, Arm. 161-162).

Սուրբ Գրիգոր Լուսաւորիչն եւ մեծ հայրապետն ամենայն Հայոց Մեծաց կործանեաց զամենայն պատկերս կռոցն եւ եբարձ զդիւապաշտութիւնն յաշխարհէս Հայոց եւ Վրաց եւ Աղուանից,

  • հայրապետ patriarch
  • կործանեաց aor 3sg կործանեմ, -եցի to overthrow, destroy
  • պատկեր, -աց statue, idol, figure, icon, image, painting (< Parthian, Middle Persian patkar; cf. Aramaic paṯkar)
  • կուռք, կռոց (pl. tantum) idol, image, statue
  • եբարձ aor 3sg բառնամ, բարձի to lift up, raise, take away, destroy (NB the ե- augment, added as usual to aorist forms that would otherwise be monosyllabic)
  • դիւապաշտութիւն idolatry (demon-/devil-worship; cf. դեւ demon, devil [Middle Persian dēw] + պաշտեմ to worship, serve)
  • Վիրք Georgians
  • Աղուանք (Caucasian) Albanians

եւ փոխանակ շինեաց եկեղեցիս յանուն սուրբ աստուածածնին Մարիամու եւ սուրբ Կարապետին Յովհաննու։

  • փոխանակ substitute, alternative, exchange (cf. փոխեմ below)
  • շինեաց aor 3sg շինեմ, -եցի to found, build, construct
  • կարապետ, -ի forerunner, precursor, guide (for կար- here cf. the Iranian root in Middle Persian kārawān “caravan” and kārdāg “traveler”)

Եւ զտօնս պղծութեանն՝ փոխեաց ի տօնս սրբութեան, զի մինչ ի կռապաշտութիւն էր աշխարհս, տօնէին այսօր Անահիտ տիկնոջն եւ կոչէին զնա ծնունդ այրոյն Արամազդայ որ է Ափրոդիտէս ըստ յունականին։

  • պղծութիւն contamination, stain, impurity, pollution
  • փոխեաց aor 3sg փոխեմ, -եցի to change, transform, displace, transfer
  • կռապաշտութիւն idolatry, idol-worship
  • տօնէին impf 3pl տօնեմ, -եցի to feast, celebrate
  • այսօր this day (also today)
  • տիկին queen, empress, princess (decl. like կին; < *տի- + կին, as տէր < *տի- + այր)
  • կոչէին impf 3pl կոչեմ, -եցի to call, name
  • ծնունդ, ծննդեան, -դոց child, offspring (also birth, origin)
  • այրոյն (presumably an aberrant form of the gen.sg of այր, the usual classical form being առն)
  • յունական Greek

English translation:

Saint Gregory, the Illuminator and great Patriarch of all Armenia, overthrew all the statues of the idols and removed demon-worship from the land of the Armenians, Georgians, and Albanians, and as a substitute he founded churches in the name of the holy Mother of God, Mary, and the holy forerunner, John [the Baptist], and he changed the feasts of impurity to feasts of holiness. [The feast is today] because while the land was in idol-worship, on this day [Aug 25] they would celebrate Lady Anahit and they would call her the offspring of her husband Aramazd; she was Aphrodite among the Greeks.

(Thanks to Ed Mathews for discussing այրոյն with me.)

Where do solitary monks live? Or, how to name various rocky places in Syriac   Leave a comment

While cataloging the 15th-century manuscript CFMM 152 (on which see also here), I was struck by the long rubric of this mēmrā attributed to Ephrem.

CFMM 152, p. 156

CFMM 152, p. 156

(Students of Syriac may note the construct state before a preposition in ʿāmray b-ṭurē [Nöldeke, Gramm., § 206], as well as in the common epithet lbiš l-alāhā [Brockelmann, Lexicon Syriacum, 2d ed., 358a].)

Here with English glosses are the nouns in this rubric where monks may dwell. They can all be rocky areas, and there might be some semantic ambiguity and overlap with some of them.

  • ṭurā mountain
  • gdānpā ledge, crag
  • šnāntā rock, crag, peak
  • ṣeryā crack, fissure
  • pqaʿtā crack (also valley)
  • ḥlēlā crack

Brock’s list of incipits tells us that this mēmrā, possibly a genuine work of Ephrem, has been published by Beck in Sermones IV (CSCO 334-335 / Scr. Syr. 148-149, 1973), pp. 16-28. (Published earlier by Zingerle and Rahmani; there are two English translations, neither available to me at the moment.) The rubric in Beck’s ed. differs slightly from the one in this manuscript.

For comparison, here is another mēmrā attributed to Ephrem from a later manuscript, CFMM 157, p. 104. (see Beck, Sermones IV, pp. 1-16, for a published edition of the mēmrā).

CFMM 157, p. 104

CFMM 157, p. 104

This one has some of the same words, but the related addition terms are:

  • mʿartā cave (pl. without fem. marker; see Nöldeke, Gramm., § 81)
  • šqipā cliff
  • pe/aʿrā cave

And so I leave you with these related Syriac terms, in case you wish to write a Syriac poem with events in rocky locales!

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 63 (Lucian & the relics of Stephen Protomartyr)   Leave a comment

Today’s passage comes from a Georgian version of Lucian’s account of the finding (invention) of the bones of Stephen Protomartyr. It was published, with FT, by Nikolay Marr in PO 19 (cf. BHO 1087-1088 for Syriac [GT by Ryssel here], CPA, Armenian; BHG 1648x and foll.). The passage shows some ecclesiastical vocabulary, the indirect verb ძილი (to sleep), and a form of დება (here with the preverb შთა-), the Series II stem of which is დვ-.

At the beginning (p. 657), Lucian addresses his readers in humble language often seen in colophons and elsewhere. Marr’s edition includes a plate of the Iviron-Athos manuscript, which contains this part (in nusxuri):

from_iviron_plate_in_po19ლუკიანე საწყალობელი და უნარჩევესი ყოველთაჲ ოჳფლისა მიერ გიკითხავ (ed., p. 657)

  • საწყალობელი miserable, lamentable, woeful
  • უნარჩევესი worst, lowest
  • ოჳფლისა მიერ Cf. Rom 16:22 AB გიკითხავ თქუენ მე…უფლისა მიერ (ἀσπάζομαι ὑμᾶς ἐγὼ…ἐν κυρίῳ), and the beginning of Epiphanius, On Gems/De gemmis (from the Šatberd codex, ed. Gigineišvili and Giunašvili, at TITUS here), უფალსა ჩემსა, პატიოსანსა ძმასა და საქმის თანაზიარსა თევდორეს კეთილად მსახურსა ეპისკოპოსსა ეპიფანე ეპისკოპოსი უფლისა მიერ გიკითხავ (cf. Blake’s ed., p. 3, ET p. 99).
  • გ-ი-კითხავ pres 1sg O2 კითხვა to greet (also to ask)

I, the lamentable Lucian, the worst of all [people], greet you in the Lord.

And now our main sentence (p. 658):

მეძინა მე ვითარცა წინაჲთ ჩუეულებასა ჩემსა განშორებულსა მას სახლსა სანათლოჲსასა: სადა იგი დგა კიდობანი რომელსა იგი შთადვიან სამსახურებელი ეკლესიისაჲ

  • მ-ე-ძინ-ა aor 3sg O1 (indir. verb) ძილი to sleep
  • წინაჲთ earlier
  • ჩუეულებაჲ custom, usual activity
  • განშორებული distant, far
  • სახლი სანათლოჲსა house/place of light/baptism (სანათლოჲ light-, baptism-) (for “light” cf. φωτιστήριον; Arm. is մկրտատուն, with -տուն house)
  • დგ-ა aor 3sg დგომა to stand, be
  • კიდობანი box, basket, chest, coffer
  • შთა-დვ-ი-ან aor iter 3pl შთადება to put in
  • სამსახურებელი service-thing(s), vessel

I slept, as had been my prior custom, in the far baptistery, where the chest was in which they would put the church’s service vessels.

…je m’endormis, comme j’étais accoutumé auparavant, dans le baptistère éloigné, où se trouvait le coffre dans lequel on met les ustensiles d’église…

An Armenian saint-loving saint for August 13: Grigor Vkayasēr (Martyrophile)   Leave a comment

Celebrated on 3 Navasard/13 August is Grigor Vkayasēr/Martyrophile/Martyr-lover, so here are a few lines on him from Bayan’s edition of the synaxarion, along with vocabulary and grammar notes and an English translation. This Grigor was consecrated Catholicos in 1065, but held the office only briefly, preferring to dedicate his life instead to study, travel, and translation. For a few works on Grigor, see R.W. Thomson, A Bibliography of Classical Armenian Literature to 1500 AD, Corpus Christianorum (Turnhout, 1995), p. 136, and the “Supplement,” Le Muséon 120 (2007): 190.

Bayan’s Armenian text and French translation are in PO 5. The page numbers from which these lines come are indicated below.

page 364

Գրիգորիոս Վկայասէրն որդի էր Գրիգորի Մագիստրոսի եւ էր անուն նորա ի ծնողացն Վահրամ որ է անձրեւ։

  • ծնող, -աց parent, father, mother
  • անձրեւ, -ի, -ոյ, -աց rain
  • Վահրամ On this common name, see F. Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch (Marburg, 1895), 361-365. For what it’s worth, “rain” in Middle Persian is wārān (NP bārān). (Generally on Iranian names in Armenian, see R. Schmitt in Encyclopaedia Iranica here.)

Gregory the Martyr-lover was the son of Gregory Magistros, and his name [as given] by his parents was Vahram, which means [lit. is] rain.

Grégoire le Martyrophile était le fils de Grégoire Magistros, le nom que ses parents lui avait donné était Vahram, c’est-à-dire pluie.

*************************

Եւ իբրեւ ձեռնադրեցաւ կաթողիկոս անուանեցաւ Գրիգորիս որ է հսկող եւ արթուն…

  • ձեռնադրեցաւ aor m/p 3sg ձեռնադրեմ, -եցի to ordain
  • անուանեցաւ aor m/p 3sg անուանեմ, -եցի to name, call
  • հսկող nomen agentis (Meillet, Altarm. Elementarbuch, § 31b) հսկեմ, -եցի to watch, stay awake, keep vigil
  • արթուն, -թնոց watchful, vigilant

And when he was ordained Catholicos, he was called Gregory, which meant [lit. was] vigilant and watcher…

Lorsqu’il fut sacré Catholicos, il prit le nom de Grigoris, qui signifie éveillé, vigilant…

*************************

page 365

եւ զի էր սիրող վկայից Քրիստոսի, մեծարէր եւ առնէր զյիշատակս նոցա անխափան

  • սիրող nomen agentis սիրեմ, -եցի to love
  • մեծարէր impf 3sg մեծարեմ, -եցի to respect, honor, venerate
  • առնէր impf 3sg առբեմ, արարի to make, do
  • անխափան without ceasing, continually

And since he was a lover of the martyrs of Christ, he would honor and commemorate them continually,

Comme il aimait les martyrs du Christ, il les honorait et célébrait incessamment leur mémoire;

*************************

եւ կարգէր տօնից նոցա գիրս մարգարէականս եւ առաքելականս եւ աւետարանս խորհրդաւորս։

  • կարգէր impf 3sg կարգեմ, -եցի to arrange, fix, assign, establish, institute
  • տօն, -ից feast, celebration
  • գիր, գրոց writing, letter(s), book, literature
  • մարգարէական prophetic (մարգարէ, -ից prophet)
  • առաքելական apostolic (առաքել, -ելոց apostle, emissary)
  • աւետարան, -աց Gospel
  • խորհրդաւոր mysterious, symbolic (խորհուրդ, -հրդեան/-դի, -հրդոց mystery, symbol, sacrament, thought, imagination, idea, counsel)

and he would arrange the [readings of] the mystery-laden prophetic, apostolic, and Gospel writings for their feast-days.

il institua pour leurs jours de fête, des lectures des prophètes, des apôtres et de l’évangile, bien appropriés.

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Կամեցաւ գնալ ի Կոստանտդինուպօլիս զի թարգմանեսցէ զպատմութիւնս սրբոցն եւ զճառս ներբողականս, որ ոչ գտանիւր առ մեզ հայ լեզուով եւ գրով։

  • կամեցաւ aor 3sg կամիմ, -եցայ to will, intend
  • գնալ inf գնամ, -ացի to go
  • թարգմանեսցէ aor subj 3sg թարգմանեմ, -եցի to translate
  • պատմութիւն history, tale, account, narration
  • ճառ, -ից discourse, sermon, treatise, homily
  • ներբողական panegyric, eulogistic (ներբողեմ, -եցի to eulogize, praise)
  • գտանիւր impf p 3sg (post-classical: see Meillet, §105b) գտանեմ, գտի (aor 3sg եգիտ) to find
  • լեզու, -ի/-ոյ, -աց language, tongue

He wished to go to Constantinople that he might translate the stories of the saints and eulogistic discourses which were not found among us in Armenian language and writing.

Il voulut se rendre à Constantinople pour y traduire les des saints et les homélies qui ne se trouvaient point chez nous en langue et caractères arméniens.

A scribe addressing a reader’s spiritual condition   Leave a comment

Here is a colophon from a manuscript I cataloged last week (CFMM 155, p. 378). It shares common features and vocabulary with other Syriac colophons, but the direct address to the reader, not merely to ask for prayer, but also to suggest that the reader, too, needs rescuing is less common. We often find something like “Whoever prays for the scribe’s forgiveness will also be forgiven,” but the phrasing we find in this colophon is not as common.

CFMM 155, p. 378

CFMM 155, p. 378

Brother, reader! I ask you in the love of Jesus to say, “God, save from the wiles of the rebellious slanderer the weak and frail one who has written, and forgive his sins in your compassion.” Perhaps you, too, should be saved from the snares of the deceitful one and be made worthy of the rank of perfection. Through the prayers of Mary the Godbearer and all the saints! Yes and yes, amen, amen.

Here are a few notes and vocabulary words for students:

  • pāgoʿā reader (see the note on the root pgʿ in this post)
  • ḥubbā Išoʿ should presumably be ḥubbā d-Išoʿ
  • pṣy D to save; first paṣṣay(hy) D impv 2ms + 3ms, then tetpaṣṣē Dt impf 2ms
  • mḥil weak
  • tāḥub weak
  • ākel-qarṣā crumb-eater, i.e. slanderer, from an old Aramaic (< Akkadian) idiom ekal qarṣē “to eat the crumbs (of)” > “to slander” (see S.A. Kaufman, Akkadian Influences on Aramaic, p. 63) (cf. διάβολος < διαβάλλω)
  • ṣenʿtā plot (for ṣenʿātēh d-ākel-qarṣā cf. Eph 6:11 τὰς μεθοδείας τοῦ διαβόλου)
  • mārod rebellious
  • paḥḥā trap, snare
  • nkil deceitful
  • šwy Gt to be equal, to be made worthy, deserve
  • dargā level, rank
  • gmirutā perfection
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