Archive for the ‘Bible’ Tag

The Pericope adulterae in Old Georgian   Leave a comment

Just over a year ago I wrote on the Pericope adulterae in an East Syriac manuscript in our collections (CCM 64; see here). I’ve recently read over the passage in the two Old Georgian versions that include it (Pre-Athonite and Athonite; not in Adishi). Birdsall wrote on it, and Chris Keith discusses the passage in Georgian a little, especially its placement, in his 2009 book (pp. 124-126). As far as I know, the texts have never been published together, nor is any English translation available, so I have prepared a document with a synoptic presentation of each verse of the passage in Greek (NA27) and the two Georgian versions together with some verse-by-verse vocabulary and grammatical notes (file here). I offer no full textual commentary, but some sense of the distinctive readings of each version compared with each other (and with Greek) will also be evident in the English translation of each Georgian version I give below. These English translations are literal, but nevertheless not every difference between the two versions can be indicated.

Bibliography

J. Neville Birdsall, “The Pericope Adulterae in Georgian,” Studia Patristica 39 (2006): 185–92.

Chris Keith, The Pericope Adulterae, the Gospel of John, and the Literacy of Jesus (Leiden, 2009).

(See some artwork from HMML collections related to the scene here, here, here, and here.)

English translation

PA 7:53 And each one left for his home.
At 7:53 And each one left for his home.

PA 8:1 But Jesus went up to the Mount of Olives.
At 8:1 But Jesus left for the Mount of Olives.

PA 8:2 And the next day [OR in the morning] he went again to the temple, and all the people were coming to him, and he was teaching them.
At 8:2 And at dawn he went again to the temple, and all the people were coming to him, and he sat down and was teaching them.

PA 8:3 The high priests and Pharisees brought a woman and stood her in their midst.
At 8:3 But the scribes and Pharisees brought him a woman, who was caught in adultery openly before the people, and they stood her in their midst.

PA 8:4 And they said, “Teacher, this woman was caught seen in adultery.
At 8:4 And they said, because they were testing him, “Teacher, this woman was caught in adultery openly.

PA 8:5 And in the Law of Moses, for such [women] he commands us to throw stone[s]. Now, what do you say?“
At 8:5 And Moses commanded us in the Law to throw stone[s] at such [women]. What, then, do you say?“

PA 8:6 But they said this and were testing him, that they might have something to accuse him of, but Jesus was looking downward and was marking on the ground with his finger.
At 8:6 But they said this and were testing him, that they might have [something] to accuse him of, but Jesus bent down to the ground, was marking on the ground with his finger, and he was saying nothing.

PA 8:7 And when they stood there a while and were looking at him, then he straightened up and said to them, “Whoever among you is sinless, let him first throw a stone at that [woman].”
At 8:7 And when they stood there a while and were looking at him, he straightened up and said to them, “Whoever of you is sinless, let him first throw a stone at that [woman].”

PA 8:8 And he again bent down to the ground.
At 8:8 And he again bent down and was marking on the ground.

PA 8:9 But when they heard it, the elders and scribes began, and one by one they were going away, and he himself was left alone, and the woman stood before Jesus.
At 8:9 But when they heard it, exposed from their conscience, they were going away one by one. They began from the elders, until he himself was left alone, and the woman stood in the midst.

PA 8:10 And Jesus looked and said to her, “Woman, where are your accusers? No one accuses you?”
At 8:10 And Jesus straightened up and saw no one except the woman, and he said to her, “Where are your accusers? No one accused you?”

PA 8:11 But she said, “No one, Lord!” And Jesus said to her, “I don’t accuse you either. Go, and from now on don’t sin.”
At 8:11 But she said, “No one, Lord!” But Jesus said to her, “I don’t accuse you either. Go, and from now on don’t sin.”

Exemplum Davidicum: Saint Domna and her feigned madness   Leave a comment

In the story of the saint Domna (cf. BHO 457), who is commemorated on Kałoc’ 22/Dec 30 and is said to have been a young pagan priestess converted to Christianity, there is an instance of her feigned madness to avoid having to interact with the other inhabitants of the prison into which she had been cast. The hagiographer explicitly models her madness on that of David in 1 Sam 21. First, then, here are the relevant verses from the Armenian Bible (Zohrab), followed by the few lines from the synaxarion reading for Domna and her companions (PO 18: 142). As usual, vocabulary is included.

1 Sam 21:13-15

13 եւ այլակերպեաց առաջի ն(ո)ր(ա) զերեսս իւր, եւ պատճառեցա́ւ յաւուր յայնմիկ. եւ կաքաւէ́ր առ դուրս քաղաքին, եւ ծորեցուցանէր զլորձունս իւր ՛ի վ(ե)ր(այ) մօրուաց իւրոց, եւ յափսիթե́րս խաղայր։

  • այլակերպեմ, -եցի to transform, change, disguise
  • երես, ի, երեսք, -սաց face
  • պատճառեմ, -եցի to allege, pretend
  • աւուր gen/dat/loc sg աւր day
  • այնմիկ gen/dat/loc sg (long form) այն dem adj
  • կաքաւեմ, -եցի to dance
  • ծորեցուցանեմ, -ուցի to make flow (cf. ծորիմ, -եցայ to trickle, flow, leak)
  • լորձունք, -ձանց spit, slobber (n.)
  • մօրուք, -րուաց beard
  • յապսիթերս on all fours (vel sim.)
  • խաղամ, -ացի to play, jump, frolic, joke

14 Եւ ասէ Անքուս ցծառայս իւր. ահա տեսէ́ք զայրն՝ այսահար՝ եւ ընդէ՞ր մուծէք զնա առիս.

  • ասեմ, ասացի to say
  • ծառայ, -ից servant
  • տեսանեմ, տեսի to see
  • այր man
  • այսահար demon-possessed, demoniac (< այս evil spirit)
  • մուծանեմ, -ծի to introduce, bring in

15 միթէ կարօ՞տ ինչ իցեմ ես այսահարօք, զի ածէք զդա այսահարել առաջի իմ. մի́ մտցէ դա ՛ի տուն։

  • միթէ is it that…?
  • կարօտ, ից in need
  • իցեմ pres subj 1sg եմ to be
  • ածեմ, ածի to carry, bring
  • այսահարիմ, -եցայ to rave, be frantic, act like a madman
  • մտանեմ, մտի to enter (aor subj 3sg)
  • տուն, տան, տանց home, house, family

From the synaxarion:

Եւ Դոմնա աղախինն Քրիստոսի ի հնարս մտեալ իմաստութեամբ որով կարասցէ զերծանիլ յանօրինացն բնակցութենէ, եւ ըստ մարգարէին Դաւթի այլագունեցաւ դիմօք որպէս այսահար, եւ բանս բարբառէր անպատշաճս։

  • աղախին female slave, maidservant
  • հնար, -ի, -ք, -րից means, way, utmost diligence, trick
  • մտանեմ, մտի to enter
  • իմաստութիւն wisdom, understanding
  • որով inst sg որ rel pron
  • կարեմ, կարացի to be able (aor subj 3sg)
  • զերծանիմ, -ծայ to be freed, delivered, escape
  • անօրէն, -ինի, -ինաւ unjust, wicked
  • բնակցութիւն living together (n.)
  • մարգարէ, -ից prophet
  • այլագունիմ, -եցայ to turn pale, discolor
  • դէմք, դիմաց face
  • այսահար demon-possessed, demoniac (< այս evil spirit)
  • բան, -ից word
  • բարբառիմ, -եցայ to speak, cry out
  • անպատշաճ unsuitable, absurd, improper

English’d:

Domna, the maidservant of Christ, having gotten into the means by which knowledge she might be able to escape having to be with the unjust people there, like David the prophet she made her face pale like a demoniac and was crying out absurd expressions.

Bayan’s FT:

La servante du Christ Domna chercha avec sagesse comment elle pourrait éviter la cohabitation des impies, et, à l’exemple du prophète David, elle changea son visage en celui d’un possédé et se mit à proférer des paroles incohérentes.

While the vocabulary between the verses in 1 Sam is not absolutely mimicked in the synaxarion, the writer has nevertheless made the comparison explicit. The following of biblical exemplars, whether explicit or not, is a hallmark of hagiography, and here we have an example of a clear case of explicit imitation of a biblical figure.

And with that, I wish you all a happy year’s end and new year’s beginning!

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 38 (Luke, Rich young ruler)   Leave a comment

Dɪꜱᴛᴀɴᴄᴇ, n. The only thing that the rich are willing for the poor to call theirs, and keep.

– Ambrose Bierce, The Devil’s Dictionary

Below is the encounter between Jesus and the Rich Young Ruler in Lk 18:18-23, the version here from Ms A-89 (ed. L. Kajaiam [Tbilisi, 1984], text in asomtavruli and mxedruli at TITUS here). This, as will be clear momentarily, is a xanmeti text. Put very simply, this means that 3rd person objects and 2nd person subjects are marked with ხ (called ხან in Georgian), in later texts marked otherwise.

18 Καὶ ἐπηρώτησέν τις αὐτὸν ἄρχων λέγων· διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ, τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω;

ႣႠ ႾႩႨႧႾႠ ႥႨႬႫႤ ႫႠႱ ႫႧႠႥႠႰႫႠႬ ႣႠ ႾႵ~Ⴀ ႫႭႻႶႭჃႠႰႭ ႱႠႾႨ ႤႰႭ ႰႠჂ ႱႠႵႫჁ ႥႵႫႬႤ Ⴐ~Ⴀ ႺႾႭႥႰႤႡႠჂ ႱႠႭჃႩႭჃႬႭჂ ႣႠႥႨႫႩჃႣႰႭ

და ხკითხა ვინმე მას მთავარმან და ხქ(ოჳ)ა მოძღოჳარო სახიერო რაჲ საქმჱ ვქმნე რ(აჲთ)ა ცხოვრებაჲ საოჳკოჳნოჲ დავიმკჳდრო

  • ხ-კითხ-ა aor 3sg O3 კითხვა to ask
  • მთავარი leader, chief, prince
  • ხ-ქოჳ-ა = ხრქუა aor 3sg O3 to say (one sII stem of სიტყუა is from რქუმა)
  • მოძღოჳარი teacher
  • სახიერი kind, benevolent
  • საქმეჲ thing
  • ვ-ქმნ-ე aor conj 1sg ქმნა to do
  • ცხოვრებაჲ life
  • საოჳკოჳნოჲ eternal
  • და-ვ-ი-მკჳდრ-ო aor conj 1sg დამკჳდრება to gain

19 εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν; οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεός.

ႾႰႵ~Ⴀ ႫႠႱ Ⴈ~Ⴣ ႰႠჂႱႠ ႫႤႲႷჃ ႫႤ ႱႠႾႨႤႰႨႧ ႠႰႠႥႨႬ ႠႰႱ ႱႠႾႨႤႰ ႢႠႰႬႠ ႫႾႭႪႭჂ Ⴖ~Ⴈ

ხრქ(ოჳ)ა მას ი(ესო)ჳ რაჲსა მეტყჳ მე [სახიე]რით არავინ არს სახიერ გარნა მხოლოჲ ღ(მერთ)ი

  • მ-ე-ტყჳ pres 2sg O1 სიტუა to speak
  • სახიერით NB case usage: instr
  • გარნა except
  • მხოლოჲ alone, only

20 τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας· μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, μὴ φονεύσῃς, μὴ κλέψῃς, μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα.

ႫႺႬႤႡႠႬႨ ႾႨႺႬႨ ႬႭჃ ႾႨႫႰႭჃႸႤႡ ႬႭჃ ႩႠႺ ႾႩႪႠႥ ႬႭჃ ႾႨႮႠႰႠႥ ႬႭჃ ႺႨႪႱႠ ႾႼႠႫႤႡ ႮႠႲႨႥ ႾႤႺ ႫႠႫႠႱႠ ႸႤႬႱႠ ႣႠ ႣႤႣႠႱႠ ႸႤႬႱႠ

[მც]ნებანი ხიცნი ნოჳ ხიმროჳშებ ნოჳ კაც ხკლავ ნოჳ ხიპარავ ნოჳ ცილსა ხწამებ პატივ ხეც მამასა შენსა და დედასა შენ[სა]

  • მცნებაჲ command
  • ხ-ი-ცნ-ი aor iter 2sg ცნობა to know
  • ხ-ი-მროჳშებ pres 2sg მრუჭება to commit adultery (cf. მრუშებაჲ whore)
  • კაცი person
  • ხ-კლავ pres 2sg O3 კლვა to kill
  • ხ-ი-პარავ pres 2sg პარვა to steal
  • ცილი lie (mendacium)
  • ხ-წამებ pres 2sg O3 წამება to bear witness
  • პატივი honor
  • ხ-ე-ც aor imv 2sg O3 ცემა to give

21 ὁ δὲ εἶπεν· ταῦτα πάντα ἐφύλαξα ἐκ νεότητος.

Ⴞ~ ႫႠႬ ႧႵ~Ⴀ ႤႢႤ Ⴗ~ႪႨ ႣႠႥႨႫႠႰႾႤ ႱႨႷႰႫႨႧ ႹႤႫႨႧႢႠႬ

ხ(ოლო) მ[ან] თქ(ოჳ)ა ეგე ყ(ოვე)ლი [და]ვიმარხე სიყრმით ჩემითგან

  • თქ(ოჳ)ა aor 3sg to say (another sII stem of სიტყუა is from თქუმა)
  • და-ვ-ი-მარხ-ე aor 1sg დამარხვა to keep, preserve
  • სიყრმეჲ youth, childhood

22 ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ· ἔτι ἕν σοι λείπει· πάντα ὅσα ἔχεις πώλησον καὶ διάδος πτωχοῖς, καὶ ἕξεις θησαυρὸν ἐν [τοῖς] οὐρανοῖς, καὶ δεῦρο ἀκολούθει μοι.

ႾႤႱႫႠ ႰႠ ႤႱႤ Ⴈ~ჃႱ ႾႰႵ~Ⴀ ႫႠႱ ႤႰႧႨႶႠ ႤႱႤ ႢႠႩႪႱ ႸႤႬ Ⴗ~ႪႨ ႰႠჂ ႢႠႵႭჃႱ ႸႤႬ ႢႠႬႷႨႣႤ ႣႠ ႫႨႾႤႺ ႢႪႠႾႠႩႧႠ ႣႠ ႢႠႵႭჃႬႣႤႱ ႱႠႭჃႬႿჁ ႺႠႧႠ ႸႨႬႠ ႣႠ ႫႭႥႤႣ ႸႤႫႭႫႨႣႤႢ ႫႤ

ხესმა რა ესე ი(ესო)ჳს ხრქ(ოჳ)ა მას ერთიღა ესე გაკლს შენ ყ(ოვე)ლი რაჲ გაქოჳს შენ განყიდე და მიხეც გლახაკთა და გაქოჳნდეს საოჳნჯჱ ცათა შინა და მოვედ შემომიდეგ მე

  • ხ-ე-სმ-ა aor 3sg O3 სმენა to hear (indirect verb)
  • -ღა yet, still
  • გ-ა-კლ-ს pres 3sg O2 კლება to lack (indirect verb; cf. the parallel passage in Mt 19:20 A-89 რაჲღა მაკლს მე, with first person grammatical object)
  • გ-ა-ქოჳ-ს pres 3sg O2 აქუს to have (indirect verb)
  • გან-ყიდ-ე aor imv 2sg განყიდვა to sell (cf. ყიდვა to buy)
  • მი-ხ-ე-ც aor imv 2sg O3 მიცემა to give
  • გლახაკი poor
  • გ-ა-ქოჳნ-დეს pres conj 3sg O2 აქუს to have
  • საოჳნჯეჲ treasure, possession
  • ცაჲ heaven
  • მო-ვედ aor imv 2sg მოსლვა to come
  • შემო-მ-ი-დეგ aor imv 2sg O1 შემოდგომა to follow

23 ὁ δὲ ἀκούσας ταῦτα περίλυπος ἐγενήθη· ἦν γὰρ πλούσιος σφόδρα.

ႾႤႱႫႠ ႰႠჂ ႤႱႤ ႫႼႭჃႾႠႰႤ ႾႨႵႫႬႠ Ⴐ~ ႾႨႷႭ ႨႢႨ ႫႣႨႣႠႰ Ⴔ~Ⴃ

ხესმა რაჲ ესე მწოჳხარე ხიქმნა რ(ამეთოჳ) ხიყო იგი მდიდარ ფ(რია)დ

  • მწოჳხარეჲ sad [an identical word means “blind”!]
  • ხ-ი-ქმნ-ა aor 3sg O3 ქმნა to do
  • ხ-ი-ყო aor 3sg O3 (!) ყოფა to be [the apparent O3 marker on this form, which will later be simply იყო, is unexpected and it has not been certainly explained: see Kevin Tuite, “Das Präfix x- im Frühgeorgischen,” Georgica  13/14 (1990): 34-61, with an Eng. version here]
  • მდიდარი rich

“With the jawbone of an ass…”   Leave a comment

Many years ago I read F.F. Bruce’s In Retrospect, and among the anecdotes he relates that for some reason or other have remained in my memory is one about W.M. Edward of Leeds University. Bruce says (pp. 106-107),

My new chief, Professor W.M. Edwards of the Chair of Greek in Leeds, was an unusual man. He had been born into a military family and himself embarked on a military career, being an officer in the Royal Garrison Artillery until his later thirties. He then went to Oxford as an undergraduate, taking his B.A. at the age of forty and becoming a Fellow of Merton College the same year. Three years later he was appointed Professor of Greek in Leeds. He was an accomplished linguist, speaking Welsh, Gaelic, Russian and Hebrew as well as the commoner European languages. … On another occasion he came into my room to see me about something or other, and found me reading the Hebrew text of Judges. Immediately he threw back his head and recited in Hebrew, Samson’s song of victory, “With the jawbone of an ass…”

The Samson story is a good one, and well known. Students making their first forays into classical Hebrew prose rightly learn it thoroughly, and these two lines in verse 15:16 (בלחי החמור חמור חמרתים בלחי החמור הכיתי אלף איש), with the word play and the rhythm, make a good inhabitant of the memory’s palace. For fun, here they are in a few more languages, and some vocabulary in case students of any of these languages are reading.

Poster for Cecil B. DeMille's Samson and Delilah (1949). Source.

Poster for Cecil B. DeMille’s Samson and Delilah (1949). Source; cf. this one.

Aramaic (Targum) בלועא דחמרא רמיתנון דגורין דלועא דחמרא קטלית אלף גברא

  • לווּעָא jaw
  • חמָרָא ass
  • דְּגוֹר heap

Greek Ἐν σιαγόνι ὄνου ἐξαλείϕων ἐξήλειψα αὐτούς, ὅτι ἐν σιαγόνι ὄνου ἐπάταξα χιλίους ἄνδρας.

Syriac (Pesh.) ܒܦܟܐ ܕܚܡܪܐ ܟܫܝ̈ܬܐ ܟܫܝܬ ܡܢܗܘܢ. ܒܦܟܐ ܕܚܡܪܐ ܩܛܠܬ ܐܠܦ ܓܒܪ̈ܝܢ܀

  • pakkā jaw, cheek
  • ḥmārā ass
  • kšā to pile up, heap (both verb and pass. ptcp. here)

Armenian ծնօտի́ւ իշոյ ջնջելով ջնջեցի́ զն(ո)ս(ա), զի ծնօտիւ իշոյ կոտորեցի հազա́ր այր։

  • ծնօտ, -ից jaw, cheek
  • իշայր, -ոյ wild ass
  • ջնջեմ, -եցի to destroy, exterminate
  • կոտորեմ, -եցի to shatter, destroy, massacre
  • հազար thousand

Georgian (Gelati; only the first half translated, and no mention of the ass!) ღაწჳთა აღმოჴოცელმან აღვჴოცნე იგინი

  • ღაწუი cheek
  • აღჴოცა to kill off (participle აღმოჴოცელი and finite verb both in the sentence)

Arabic (from the London Polyglot; there are other versions)

judges_15_16_london_polyglot

  • ṭaraḥa (a) to drive away, repel
  • ʕaẓm bone
  • ḫadd cheek
  • ḥimār ass
  • tulūl is a pl. of tall hill, but here, heap
  • fakk jawbone (cf. Syriac above)

Gǝʕǝz በዐጽመ ፡ መንከሰ ፡ አድግ ፡ ደምስሶ ፡ ደምሰስክዎሙ ፡ እስመ ፡ በዐጽመ ፡ መንከሰ ፡ አድግ ፡ ቀተልኩ ፡ ዐሠርተ ፡ ምእተ ፡ ብእሴ ።

  • መንከስ፡jaw, jawbone (√näkäsä to bite, like näsäkä, with cognates in many Semitic languages)
  • አድግ፡ ass
  • ደምሰሰ፡ to abolish, wipe out, destroy

NB: In Islamic tradition, it is not the jawbone of an ass, but that of a camel (laḥy baʕīr), that Samson employs:

وكان اذا لقيهم لقيهم بلحي بعير

(J. Barth & Th. Nöldeke, Annales quos scripsit Abu Djafar Mohammed Ibn Djarir At-Tabari, 1.II.794.7-8 [1881-1882]; available here) [More broadly, see Andrew Rippin, “The Muslim Samson: Medieval, Modern and Scholarly Interpretations,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 71 (2008): 239-253.]

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 27 (The blood moon: Joel 2:31 and its echoes)   Leave a comment

Given last night’s total lunar eclipse, mostly viewable in the Americas, the biblical references of the moon appearing blood-like are a great place to turn to now for some brief reading practice in Georgian. For good measure, I’ve included the Greek and Armenian verses, too.

First, here are the three verses in the venerable KJV:

  • Joel 2:31 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the LORD come.
  • Acts 2:20 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before that great and notable day of the Lord come:
  • Rev. 6:12 And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood;

Joel 2:31

Greek (where it is numbered 3:4) and Armenian:

ὁ ἥλιος μεταστραφήσεται εἰς σκότος καὶ ἡ σελήνη εἰς αἷμα πρὶν ἐλθεῖν ἡμέραν κυρίου τὴν μεγάλην καὶ ἐπιφανῆ.

արեգակն դարձցի ՛ի խաւա́ր եւ լուսին յարիւն, մինչչեւ եկեալ իցէ օր տ(եառ)ն մեծն եւ երեւելին։

  • արեգակն sun
  • դարձցի aor. subj. mid./pas. 3s դառնամ, դարձաւ to turn
  • խաւար, -ի, -աւ dark(ness)
  • լուսին, -սնի/-սնոյ moon
  • արիւն, արեանց blood
  • եկեալ ptcp. գամ to come
  • իցէ pres. subj. 3s եմ to be
  • երեւելի glorious, splendid

Oshki/Jer.:

მზჱ გარდაიქცეს ბნელად, და მთოვარჱ სისხლად ვიდრე მოსლვადმდე დღისა მის უფლისა დიდისა და განჩინებულისა.

  • მზეჲ sun
  • გარდა-ი-ქცე-ს aor. conj. 3s გარდაქცევა to change (NB version with -ი-)
  • ბნელი dark(ness)
  • მთოვარეჲ moon
  • სისხლი blood
  • მოსლვაჲ coming
  • განჩინებული fixed, determined, appointed, set

Acts 2:20

ὁ ἥλιος μεταστραφήσεται εἰς σκότος καὶ ἡ σελήνη εἰς αἷμα, πρὶν ἐλθεῖν ἡμέραν κυρίου τὴν μεγάλην καὶ ἐπιφανῆ.

արեգակն դարձցի ՛ի խաւա́ր՝ եւ լուսին յարիւն, մինչչե́ւ եկեալ իցէ օր տ(եառ)ն մեծ եւ երեւելի։

Both the Sinai (ed. Garitte) and AB (ed. Abuladze) redactions read in agreement:

მზჱ გარდაიქცეს ბნელად და მთოვარჱ სისხლად პირველ მოსლვადმდე დღისა მის უფლისაჲსა დიდისა და განჩინებულისა.

The differences between Acts 2:20 and Joel 2:31 are only two:

  1. პირველ instead of ვიდრე (i.e. “before” in Acts, “until” in Joel)
  2. უფლისაჲსა (gen. + gen.) instead of უფლისა (gen.)

Rev. 6:12

Καὶ εἶδον ὅτε ἤνοιξεν τὴν σφραγῖδα τὴν ἕκτην, καὶ σεισμὸς μέγας ἐγένετο καὶ ὁ ἥλιος ἐγένετο μέλας ὡς σάκκος τρίχινος καὶ ἡ σελήνη ὅλη ἐγένετο ὡς αἷμα

Եւ տեսի յորժամ եբաց զկնիքն վեցերորդ՝ եղեւ շարժումն մեծ, եւ արեգակն եղեւ սեա́ւ իբրեւ զկապերտ այծեայ, եւ լուսինն բոլորովին եղեւ արիւն։

  • տեսի aor. 1s տեսանեմ, տեսի, տես to see
  • եբաց aor 3s բանամ, բացի to open. For this kind of verb, see Meillet, Altarmenisches Elementarbuch, § 113; for the augment, attached to consonant-initial (at least in early Arm.) forms in the aor that would otherwise be monosyllabic (3s), see Godel, Intro. Class. Arm., §§ 2.213, 2.31, 3.233, 5.3.
  • կնիք, կնիքոց seal
  • վեցերորդ six (“six” is վեց)
  • եղեւ aor 3s եղանիմ to be(come)
  • շարժումն (movement >) earthquake
  • սեաւ black (cf. Georgian შავი)
  • կապերտ, -ից linen, cloth, sackcloth
  • այծեայ, -ծէից made of goat-hair
  • բոլորովին totally, completely, entirely

Ed. I. Imnaišvili, 1961:

და ვიხილე, რაჟამს აღაღო მეექუსჱ ბეჭედი, და ძრვაჲ იქმნა დიდი, და მზჱ შავ იქმნა, ვითარცა ძაძაჲ ბალნისაჲ, და მთოვარჱ ყოვლითურთ იქმნა, ვითარცა სისხლი.

  • ვ-ი-ხილ-ე aor 1s ხილვა to see (cf. ხილვით ვიხილე Acts 7:34 [Sinai] for ἰδὼν εἶδον!)
  • აღ-ა-ღ-ო aor 3s აღღება to open
  • მეექუსეჲ sixth (“six” is ექუსი)
  • ბეჭედი seal (also “ring”)
  • ძრვაჲ (movement >) earthquake
  • შავი black (cf. Armenian սեաւ)
  • ძაძაჲ rough garment, mourning garment, sack
  • ბალანი skin, pelt, animal hair
  • ყოვლითურთ totally, completely, entirely

___________________________________

It was too cloudy here last night to see it, but hopefully some of you got to view the eclipse!

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 21: A twelfth-century tomb inscription and its biblical source   Leave a comment

Among the most famous figures in Georgian history is David the Builder (დავით აღმაშენებელი, r. 1089-1125). The epitaph traditionally known as his, however, is almost certainly not, but rather, as shown in a short note by Jost Gippert and Manana Tandashvili, that of his son, Demetre I, who reigned 1125-1154. I cannot add anything to the historical discussion of the epitaph, but it is worth taking the opportunity to look closer at the inscription itself, a photo of the epitaph with a reading of the inscription being easily available here and, in several close photos here, with a reading also given in the short note just mentioned. The inscription provides practice for reading asomt’avruli and learners of the language may appreciate a convenient setting forth of the vocabulary of its simple contents.

As in Georgian manuscripts, the writing in the inscription can be very economic thanks to much abbreviation. I have filled out the abbreviations in the asomt’avruli in parentheses, marked words spreading across lines with a – at line end, and I have not marked less legible letters as such; to judge the latter see the photos pointed out above.

1 Ⴕ(ႰႨႱႲႤ) ႤႱႤ ႠႰႱ ႢႠႬ-
2 ႱႠႱႭ(Ⴣ)ႤႬႤ-
3 ႡႤႪႨ Ⴙ(Ⴄ)ႫႨ
4 Ⴍ(Ⴣ)Ⴉ(ႭჃႬႨႧ)Ⴈ Ⴍ(Ⴣ)Ⴉ(ႭჃႬႨႱႠႫႣ)Ⴄ
5 ႤႱႤ ႫႧႬႠ-
6 ႥႱ ႠႵႠ ႣႠ-
7 ႥႤႫႩჃႣႰႭ
8 ႫႤ

Rendered into mxedruli, with the abbreviations still marked, this is:

ქ(რისტე) ესე არს განსასო(ჳ)ენებელი ჩ(ე)მი ო(ჳ)კ(ოჳნით)ი ო(ჳ)კ(ოჳნისამდ)ე ესე მთნავს აქა დავემკჳდრო მე

Vocabulary:

  • განსასუენებელი resting place (cf. განსუენება to give rest to, as in Mt 11:28 (all versions) მე განგისუენო თქუენ κἀγὼ ἀναπαύσω ὑμᾶς)
  • უკუნი eternity (უკუნითი უკუნისა-მდე = εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων)
  • თნა to please (as in Mt 14:6 Xanm. and PA ხთნდა ჰეროდეს როკვაჲ იგი მისი ἤρεσεν τῷ Ἡηρῷδῃ [“her dance” in Georgian, but not Greek]); the form here is მ-თნა-ვ-ს
  • დამკჳდრება to stay, reside, dwell (as in Jn 1:14 Ad დაემკჳდრა ჩუენ თანა ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, and Jos. Ant. Iud. 1.6.1 [126] და ესოდენნი ვიდრემე ნათესავნი იაფეთოის ყრმათაგან დაემკჳრებიან καὶ τοσαῦτα μὲν ἔθνη ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰαφέθου παίδων κατοικεῖται); the form here is და-ვ-ე-მკჳდრ-ო

As also noted by Gippert and Tandashvili, the words of the inscription clearly come from Ps 132:14. The A recension of the Psalter in Old Georgian was edited by M. Šaniże (Tbilisi, 1960), online here, and an edition of the Psalter from a Graz manuscript was edited by V. Imnaišvili (Tbilisi, 2004), online here. For this verse (as in Greek, Psalm 131, not 132, in Georgian), they both read:

ესე არს განსასუენებელი ჩემი უკუნისამდე;
ამას დავემკჳდრო, რამეთუ მთნავს ესე. (Graz ms, f. 234r, lines 5-7, available here)

But the text of this verse in the Mc’xet’a Bible (see here), compiled later, matches the tomb inscription even more closely:

ესე არს განსასუენებელი ჩემი უკუნითი უკუნისამდე,
ამას დავემკჳდრო, რამეთუ მთნავს ესე.

The text of the inscription matches that of the biblical text so closely that no additional vocabulary notes are necessary.

With that, until next time, happy reading and memento mori.

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 20   Leave a comment

Jonah 1:5-6 (ed. Blake and Brière, PO 29, text findable online at TITUS here [biblical books listed in the frame on the right])

5 καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν οἱ ναυτικοὶ καὶ ἀνεβόων ἕκαστος πρὸς τὸν θεὸν αὐτῶν καὶ ἐκβολὴν ἐποιήσαντο τῶν σκευῶν τῶν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν τοῦ κουφισθῆναι ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν· Ιωνας δὲ κατέβη εἰς τὴν κοίλην τοῦ πλοίου καὶ ἐκάθευδεν καὶ ἔρρεγχεν.

5   და შეეშინა მენავეთა მათ,

და ღაღადებდა კაცად-კაცადი ღმრთისა მიმართ თჳსისა,

და გარდაღურიდეს ჭურჭელსა ნავით ზღუად, რაჲთა აღუმცირონ მათ <გან>,

ხოლო იონა შთავიდა უბესა მის ნავისასა, და ეძინა, და ხურინვიდა.

Vocabulary

  • შეშინება to be afraid (indirect verb)
  • მენავეჲ sailor
  • ღაღადება to cry out
  • კაცად-კაცადი each one
  • გარდაღურა to throw out, away
  • ჭურჭელი vessel, possession, thing, ware
  • ნავი boat, ship
  • ზღუაჲ sea
  • აღმცირება to lighten
  • შთასლვა to go down
  • უბეჲ inside part (cf. Aramaic ʕubbā [and Arabic ʕubb?])
  • ს-ძინავს (aor. ეძინა, as here; n.act. is ძილი!) to sleep (indirect verb)
  • ხურინვა to snore

6 καὶ προσῆλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ πρωρεὺς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Τί σὺ ῥέγχεις; ἀνάστα καὶ ἐπικαλοῦ τὸν θεόν σου, ὅπως διασώσῃ ὁ θεὸς ἡμᾶς καὶ μὴ ἀπολώμεθα.

6 <და> მოუჴდა <მას> ნავის-მხერვალი იგი

და ჰრქუა მას; რაჲსა ხურინავ შენ,

აღდეგ და ხადოდე ღმერთსა შენსა,

გჳჴსნნეს ხოლო თუ ღმერთმან, და არა წარვწყმდეთ.

Vocabulary

  • მოჴდომა to come to (not to be confused with მოჴდა to take away, &c.)
  • ნავის-მხერვალი helmsman
  • აღდგომა to get up
  • ხადა to call
  • ჴსნა to save (გჳ-ჴსნ-ნეს aor. conj. 3s with 1p d.o.)
  • ხოლო თუ = ὅπως (and note the placement)
  • წარწყმედა to perish
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