Archive for the ‘Greek’ Category

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 54 (Lk 4:23: Physician, heal thyself!)   1 comment

Below is Lk 4:23 in the Old Georgian Adishi version, divided into phrases. For comparison, I also give Greek, Syriac (Peshitta), and Armenian (Künzle). (Since the online display of Syriac is still so sketchy depending on a machine’s setup, I give the Syriac in transliteration.)

  1. καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς·
  2. āmar lhon Išoʿ
  3. Եւ ասէ ցնոսա·
  4. და თავადმან ჰრქუა მათ:
  • თავადი he himself
  1. πάντως ἐρεῖτέ μοι τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην·
  2. kbar tēmrun li matlā hānā
  3. ապաքէն ասիցէ՞ք առ իս զառակս զայս·
  4. მრქუათ სამე იგავი ესე:
  • მ-რქუ-ა-თ aor conj 2pl O1 რქუმა to say
  • სამე well
  • იგავი proverb
  1. ἰατρέ, θεράπευσον σεαυτόν·
  2. āsyā assā napšāk
  3. բժիշկ. բժշկեա զանձն քո·
  4. მკურნალო, განიკურნე თავი შენი!
  • მკურნალი physician, healer
  • გან-ი-კურნ-ე aor impv 2sg განკურნება to heal
  • თავი head > self
  1. ὅσα ἠκούσαμεν γενόμενα εἰς τὴν Καφαρναοὺμ ποίησον καὶ ὧδε ἐν τῇ πατρίδι σου.
  2. w-kul da-šmaʿn da-ʿbadt ba-kparnaḥum ʿbed āp hārkā ba-mdi(n)tāk [Sinaiticus paraphrases: w-aylēn da-šmaʿton d-ʿebdet ba-kparnaḥām tēmrun li ʿbed āp hārkā ba-mdi(n)tāk]
  3. որչափ լուա́ք զոր արարեր ի կափառնաւում. արա եւ ա́ստ ի քում գաւառի։.
  4. რავდენი გუესმა საქმე კაფარნაომს, ქმენ აქაცა, მამულსა შენსა!
  • გუ-ე-სმ-ა aor 3sg O1pl (indir. vb) სმენა to hear
  • საქმე thing
  • ქმენ aor impv 2sg ქმნა to do
  • მამული homeland, place of origin (< მამაჲ father)

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 53 (Brood of vipers; with Armenian)   Leave a comment

As an unsavory address to one’s interlocutors, γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν “brood of vipers”, which both John the Baptist and Jesus use, is one of the more memorable in the New Testament. (For Strack & Billerbeck on γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, see their Kommentar, vol. 1, p. 114.) Here are verses (Mt 3:7, Mt 12:34, Mt 23:33) where it occurs in Greek, Armenian (Künzle), and various Georgian versions with, as usual, vocabulary lists and grammatical notes. (A-89/A-844 is given in both asomtavruli and mxedruli.)

Mt 3:7

Ἰδὼν δὲ πολλοὺς τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων ἐρχομένους ἐπὶ τὸ βάπτισμα αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, τίς ὑπέδειξεν ὑμῖν φυγεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς μελλούσης ὀργῆς;

Եւ տեսեալ զբազումս ի սադուկեցւոցն եւ ի փարիսեցւոց եկեալս ի մկրտութիւնն նորա, ասէ ցնոսա· ծնունդք իժից, ո՞ ցոյց ձեզ փախչել ի բարկութենէն որ գալոցն է։.

  • [the order of “Pharisees and Sadducees” is flipped]
  • մկրտութիւն baptism
  • ծնունդ, ծննդեան, -դոց generation, offspring (also nativity, birth, as in ծնունդ Քրիստոսի = Xmas)
  • իժ, -ից viper
  • ցոյց aor 3sg ցուցանեմ, ցուցի to show, indicate, point out
  • փախչել inf of փախչիմ, -եայ to flee
  • բարկութիւն anger, wrath
  • գալոց (inf >) ptcp գամ, եկի to come (see Meillet, Altarm. Elementarbuch § 105e for this kind of ptcp)

3:7 Adishi

[და] ვითარცა იხილნა ფა[რ]ისეველნი და ს[ად]უკეველნი, მომავალნი ნათლის-ღებად მისგან, ჰრქუა მათ: ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვინ გიჩუენა თქუენ სივლტოლაჲ მერმისა მისგან მომავალისა რისხვისა?

  • [Nothing for πολλούς. An apparent doublet: მერმისა…მომავალისა for μελλούσης.]
  • ი-ხილ-ნ-ა aor 3sg N ხილვა to see
  • მომავალი coming, to come (adj), future
  • ნათლის-ღებაჲ baptism (lit. receiving, taking [ღება] the light [ნათელი]; the active counterpart is ნათლის-ცემაჲ, giving the light > to baptize)
  • ნაშობი born, child
  • იქედნეჲ snake (< ἔχιδνα)
  • გ-ი-ჩუენ-ა aor 3sg O2 ჩუენება to show
  • სივლტოლაჲ running, flight (v.n.)
  • მერმეჲ following, next, future
  • რისხვაჲ wrath, anger

3:7 Athonite

და ვითარცა იხილნა მრავალნი ფარისეველნი და სადუკეველნი, მომავალნი ნათლის-ღებად მისგან, ჰრქუა მათ: ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვინ გიჩუენა თქუენ სივლტოლაჲ მერმისა მისგან რისხვისა?

Mt 12:34

γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, πῶς δύνασθε ἀγαθὰ λαλεῖν πονηροὶ ὄντες; ἐκ γὰρ τοῦ περισσεύματος τῆς καρδίας τὸ στόμα λαλεῖ.

Ծնունդք իժից· զիա՞րդ կարիցէք բարիս խաւսել որ չարքդ էք· քանզի ի յաւելուածո́յ սրտի խաւսի բերան։.։.

  • զիա՞րդ how?
  • կարիցէք pres subj 2pl կարեմ, կարացի to be able
  • չար, -աց bad, wicked
  • խաւսի pres 3sg խաւսիմ, -եցայ to speak
  • յաւելուած, -ոց surplus, increase

12:34 (A-89/A-844)

ႬႠႸႭႡႬႭ ႨႵႤႣႬႤႧႠႬႭ ႥႤႰ ჄႤႪ ႢႤႼႨႴႤႡႨႱ ႩႤႧႨႪႨႱႠ ႱႨႲႷႭჃႠႣ Ⴐ~ ႧႵ~Ⴌ ႭჃႩႤႧႭჃႰႬႨ ႾႠႰႧ Ⴐ~ ႬႠႫႤႲႠႥႨႱႠႢႠႬ ႢႭჃႪႨႱႠ ႮႨႰႨ ႾႨႲႷჃႱ

ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო ვერ ჴელ-გეწიფების [კე]თილისა სიტყოჳად რ(ამეთოჳ) თქ(ოჳე)ნ ოჳკეთოჳრნი ხართ რ(ამეთოჳ) ნამეტავისაგან გოჳლისა პირი ხიტყჳს

  • ჴელ-გ-ე-წიფებ-ი-ს pres 3sg O2 (indir. vb) ჴელ-წიფება to be able
  • უკეთური bad, evil
  • ხ-არ-თ pres 2pl ყოფა to be
  • ნამეტავი excessive, extra
  • პირი mouth
  • ხ-ი-ტყუ-ი-ს pres 3sg სიტყუა to speak

12:34 Adishi

ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვითარ უძლოთ კეთილისა სიტყუად? რამეთუ თქუენ უკეთურნი ხართ, რამეთუ ნამეტავისაგან გულისა პირი იტყჳს.

  • უ-ძლ-ო-თ aor 2pl ძლება to be able
  • იტყჳს as above, only w/o ხ-

12:34 Athonite

ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვითარ ჴელ-გეწიფების კეთილისა სიტყუად, რამეთუ თქუენ უკეთურნი ხართ? რამეთუ ნამეტავისაგან გულისა პირი იტყჳნ.

  • as Adishi, except with the verb ჴელ-გეწიფების as in A-89/A-844

Mt 23:33

ὄφεις, γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, πῶς φύγητε ἀπὸ τῆς κρίσεως τῆς γεέννης;

Աւձք, ծնունդք իժից զիա՞րդ փախնուցուք ի դատաստանէ գեհենին։.

  • աւձ, -ից snake, serpent
  • փախնուցուք pres subj 2pl փախնում, -խեայ to flee
  • դատաստան, -աց judgement

23:33 (A-89/A-844)

ႫႠႧႠ ႧႵ~ႬႧႠჂ ႢႭჃႤႪႬႭ ႣႠ ႬႠႸႭႡႬႭ ႨႵႤႣႬႤႧႠႬႭ Ⴅ~ႰႫႤ ႢႠႬႾႤႰႬႤႧ ႱႠႸႿႤႪႱႠ ႢႤჀႤႬႨႠჂႱႠႱႠ

თქ(ოჳე)ნთაჲ გოჳელნო და ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო ვ(ითა)რმე განხერნეთ საშჯელსა გეჰენიაჲსასა

  • [თქ(ოჳე)ნთაჲ is a plus, as is the და between გოჳელნო and ნაშობნო]
  • გუელი snake
  • გან-ხ-ე-რ-ნ-ე-თ aor conj 2pl (form also aor) განრომა to survive, be saved
  • საშჯელი judgement

23:33 Adishi

გუელნო, ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვითარმე განერნეთ სასჯელსა გეჰენიაჲსასა?

  • განერნეთ as above, only w/o ხ-

23:33 Athonite
გუელნო და ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვითარმე განერნეთ საშჯელსა მას გეჰენიისასა?

  • [და is a plus, as in A-89/A-844]

The wise king: A passage from Philo’s Questions on Genesis (4.76) in Armenian   1 comment

(Preface: Some time ago I came across the passage below in Armenian. I don’t remember the trail that led me to it, but in any case, it’s an interesting passage for its content and vocabulary and for the fact that both the Greek original and the Armenian survive and can thus be readily compared.)

Most of Philo’s Quaestiones in Genesim survives only in Armenian. Here is part of § 4.76 on Genesis, which is on Gen 23:6. This passage = Chrysippus, Fragmenta Moralia, № 681 (SVF 3, p. 170; available here). The Armenian text was edited and translated into Latin by Aucher/Awgerean, a copy of which from Google Books is accessible at Robert Bedrosian’s site here; unfortunately, some pages were improperly scanned, resulting in an almost surreal stretching of the text, but this particular excerpt (pp. 304-305) is still legible. There is an ET of the Armenian by Marcus, in LCL Philo, suppl. 1, p. 354 (available here).

It happens that the fragmentary Greek evidence for this work of Philo includes part of this text. The Chrysippus fragment cited above is given in SVF in Aucher’s LT. The Greek fragment, of course, would be closer to Chrysippus’ own language. The fragment appears in J. Rendell Harris, Fragments of Philo Judaeus, p. 36 (available here), alongside Aucher’s slightly modified LT.

Fruitful observations would, no doubt, result from a close comparison and dual reading of the Greek and the Armenian version — NB e.g. the Armenian doublet զհմուտն եւ զտեղեակն for τὸν ἐπιστήμονα at the end — yet nothing so involved is given here, only a basic initial meeting with the two texts. So here is the Greek fragment (but nothing for the first sentence), the Armenian text (Aucher, pp. 304-305), and Marcus’s ET, with vocabulary and notes for the Armenian. For comparison and completeness Aucher’s LT follows at the end.

Եւ երկրորդ՝ օրէնս դնէ բնաւորականագոյն. զոր ոմանք յայնցանէ որ միանգամ իմաստասիրականքն եղեն՝ վտարեցին. And, in the second place, (Scripture) lays down a most natural law, which some of those who philosophize have rejected.
  • երկրորդ, -աց second(ly)
  • օրէն, օրինի law, rule, regulation, custom (later in pl.)
  • դնէ pres 3sg դնեմ, եդի to lay, put, establish
  • բնաւորականագոյն natural (Nor baṙgirk’ 498b)
  • ոմն indef. adj./pron.
  • յ-այնցանէ abl. pl. short form of այն that
  • որ միանգամ whoever
  • իմաստասիրական philosophical
  • եղեն aor 3pl եղանիմ to become
  • վտարեցին aor 3pl վտարեմ, -եցի to remove, expel, banish
Τῶν μὲν ἀφρόνων βασιλεὺς οὐδείς, καὶ ἂν τὸ πάσης γῆς καὶ θαλάσσης ἀνάψηται κράτος· μόνος δὲ ὁ ἀστεῖος καὶ θεοφίλης, καὶ ἂν τῶν παρασκευῶν καὶ τῶν χορηγιῶν ἀμοιρῇ, δι᾽ ὧν πολλοὶ κρατύνονται δυναστείας. եւ օրէնքն են, զի յանզգամացն թագաւոր ոչ ոք, թէպէտ զամենայն երկրի եւ զծովու զօրութիւն առցէ. բայց միայն իմաստունն եւ ա՟ծասէրն. եւ եթէ կազմածոցն եւ պատրաստութե՟ցն մասն իցէ, ի ձեռն որոց բազումք զօրանան բռնութեամբ զօրութեամբք։ This law is that no one of the foolish (is) a king, even though he should be master of all the land and sea, but only the wise and God-loving man, even if he is without the equipment and resources through which many obtain power with violence and force.
  • են pres 3pl եմ to be
  • անզգան, -աց knavish, wicked; foolish, mad
  • ոչ ոք no one, nobody
  • թէպէտ even if, although
  • զօրութիւն power, force
  • առցէ aor subj 3sg առնում, առի to take, occupy, carry off
  • միայն only, alone
  • իմաստուն, -տնոց wise, intelligent, prudent, skillful
  • աստուածասէր god-loving, pious
  • կազմած, -ոց apparatus, preparation, equipment
  • պատրաստութիւն preparation, disposition, attention
  • մասն, -սին, -սանց part, portion, share, lot (this and the following word for Greek ἀμοιρῇ)
  • իցէ pres subj 3sg եմ to be
  • ձեռն hand, power, strength, etc. ի ձեռն by, by means of, through
  • զօրանան pres 3pl զօրանամ to grow stronger, reign
  • բռնութիւն violence, tyranny
Ὥσπερ γὰρ τῷ κυβερνητικῆς ἢ ἰατρικῆς ἢ μουσικῆς ἀπείρῳ παρέλκον πρᾶγμα οἴακες καὶ φαρμάκων σύνθεσις καὶ αὐλοὶ καὶ κιθάραι, διότι μηδενὶ τούτων δύναται χρῆσθαι πρὸς ὃ πέφυκε, κυβερνήτῃ δὲ καὶ ἰατρῷ καὶ μουσικῷ λέγοιτο ἂν ἐφαρμόζειν δεόντως· Եւ քանզի որպէս նաւաստականին, կամ բժըշկականին, կամ երաժշտականին անփորձի՝ տարացոյց իրք են, քեղիք, եւ դեղոց եւ սպեղանեաց խառնուածք, եւ փողք, եւ քնարք. վասն զի ոչինչ յայսցանէ ի կիր առնուլ կարէ՝ առ որ բնաւորեցաւն. բայց նաւաստոյն եւ բժշկի եւ երաժշտականի ասասցի յարմարել եւ պատկանել։ For whereas the man ignorant of the art of the pilot or of the physician or of the musician has trouble with the rudders or with the compounding of drugs and ointments or with flutes and lyres, since he is unable to use any of them for its natural purpose, to the pilot, on the other hand, and the physician and the musician they may be said to be fitting and suitable.
  • նաւաստական, -աց sailor (Nor baṙgirk’ 408b)
  • բժըշկական medical
  • երաժշտական musical; musician
  • անփորձ, -ից inexperienced, untried
  • տարացոյց example, model, idea, design, paradigm (Nor baṙgirk’ 855c)
  • իր, -ի, -աց thing, affair
  • քեղի, -ղւոյ, -ղեաց rudder
  • դեղ, -ոց/-ից remedy, medicine
  • սպեղանի poultice, salve, ointment
  • խառնուած, -ոց mixture, compounding
  • փող, -ոց trumpet, horn, reed, pipe
  • քնար, -աց/-ից lyre, harp (cf. Syr. kennārā, Geo. ქნარი)
  • ի կիր առնուլ to put to use
  • կարէ pres 3sg կարեմ, -րացի to be able
  • բնաւոր natural, innate
  • նաւաստ, -տւոյ, տեաց sailor
  • բժիշկ, բժշկի, բժշկաց physician
  • ասասցի aor subj m/p 3sg ասեմ to say
  • յարմարել inf յարնարեմ, -եցի to adapt, accommodate, arrange
  • պատկանել inf պատկանեմ to adapt, adjust, suit, apply
οὕτως, ἐπειδὴ τἐχνη τίς ἐστι βασιλικὴ καὶ τἐχνων ἀρίστη, τὸν μὲν ἀνεπιστήμονα χρήσεως ἀνθρώπων ἰδιώτην νομιστέον, βασιλέα δὲ μόνον τὸν ἐπιστήμονα. Յիրաւի այսպէս. վասն [305] զի արուեստ իմն է թագաւորականն, եւ արուեստից առաքինին. քանզի այն որ անգէտն է եւ անտեղեակ պիտոյից մարդկան, տգէտ համարելի է, եւ գեղջուկ. բայց թագաւոր՝ միայն զհմուտն եւ զտեղեակն։ And this is proper, since there is a certain kingly art, and it is the most noble of the arts. For he who is ignorant and unversed in the needs of men must be considered a layman, while only he (can be considered) a king who is knowing and experienced.
  • յիրաւի justly, deservedly, in truth
  • արուեստ, -ից art, trade, study
  • թագաւորական royal
  • առաքինի, -նւոյ, -նեաց virtuous, honest (also valiant, courageous)
  • անգէտ ignorant, unlearned, stupid
  • անտեղեակ ignorant, unlearned, unskillful
  • պէտք, պիտոյից needs, necessity, use, business
  • մարդիկ, մարդկան people, the human race
  • տգէտ ignorant, unlearned, untaught, illiterate
  • համարելի counted, considered (< համարեմ, -եցի to count, consider, reckon, esteem; on the adjectival form derived from the infinitive, see Meillet, Altarm. Elementarbuch, § 105e)
  • գեղջուկ, -ջկի, -ջկաց peasant, villager, rustic
  • միայն, -ոյ, -ով only, sole
  • հմուտ well-versed, learned, experienced, skillful
  • տեղեակ well informed, skilled, expert

Aucher’s LT of the Armenian:

Secundo vero legem statuit nimis naturalem, quam nonnulli philosophorum sibi conciliarunt. Lex autem est, ut ex insipientibus nullus sit rex, quamvis terrae et maris totam vim subiugarit, sed solus sapiens et dei amans, praeter partes apparatuum armorumque, quibus multi proficiunt per vim violentam. Etenim sicut nauticae vel medicinae vel musicae si quis imperitus sit, pro argumento sunt ei clavus et medicaminum commixtura et tibia et lyra (nullum enim istorum usurpare potest ad usum destinatum, at nauarcho et medico ac musico dicatur omnino convenire) ita profecto, siquidem ars est quaedam regium hoc munus et artifex homo virtute praeditus. Nam qui imperitus est et nescius rerum homines iuvantium, rudis atque rusticus est censendus, rex autem dicendus solus peritus gnarusque.

More bibliography

On Philo in Armenian generally, see R.W. Thomson, Bibliography of Classical Armenian Literature to 1500 AD, pp. 75-76; and “Supplement to A Bibliography of Classical Armenian Literature to AD 1500: Publications 1993–2005″, Le Muséon, 120 (2007), 163–223, here, p. 177. More recently, several important studies appeared in:

Lombardi, Sara Mancini and Paola Pontani, eds. 2011. Studies on the Ancient Armenian Version of Philo’s Works, Studies in Philo of Alexandria 6. Leiden: Brill.

Earlier work by Marcus remains important. These are available at Bedrosian’s site mentioned above.

Marcus, Ralph. 1930. “The Armenian Translation of Philo’s Quaestiones in Genesim et Exodum.Journal of Biblical Literature 49: 61-64.

Marcus, Ralph. 1933. “An Armenian-Greek Index to Philo’s Quaestiones and De Vita Contemplativa.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 53: 251-282.

Marcus, Ralph. 1948. “Notes on the Armenian Text of Philo’s Quaestiones in Genesin, Books I-III.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 7: 111-115.

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 46 (Lot’s wife)   Leave a comment

Lot’s unnamed and ill-fated wife appears in Gen 19:26 and Lk 17:32. We can start with the latter verse, a simple injunction:

Lk 17:32 Ad მოიჴსენეთ ცოლისა ლოთისი.

  • მო-ი-ჴსენ-ე-თ aor impv 2pl მოჴსენება to remember. NB the gen obj.
  • ცოლი wife

And now the report of what happened to her as Lot’s family was fleeing Sodom:

Gen 19:26 Oshki და მიიხილა ცოლმან ლოთისმან მართლუკუნ და იქმნა იგი ძეგლ მარილის.

  • მი-ი-ხილ-ა aor 3sg მიხილვა to look
  • მართლუკუნ back, backwards
  • ძეგლი monument, sculpture
  • მარილი salt

The version of this verse in the Jerusalem Lectionary differs only a little:

და უკუ-მოიხილა ცოლმან ლოთისმან და იქმნა იგი ძეგლ მარილისა.

  • უკუ-მო-ი-ხილ-ა aor 3sg უკუ-მოხილვა to look back

I suppose Dylan’s “She’s an artist, she don’t look back” might be მხატვარი არს, არა უკუ-მოიხილავნ (iter pres, or perh. the aor iter უკუ-მოიხილის). The term მხატვარი painter (cf. ხატი picture, image, and ხატვა to paint, draw) occurs in Gregory of Nyssa’s De opificio hominis (თქუმული კაცისა შესაქმისათჳს) 5 (ed. Abuladze [Tbilisi, 1964], p. 149.24 and 150.4) for Greek γραφεύς and ζώγραφος.

The flight from Sodom, with Lot's wife turned into salt. Vindobonensis Palatinus 1191, f. 10v. 14th century. Source.

The flight from Sodom, with Lot’s wife turned into salt. Vindobonensis Palatinus 1191, f. 10v. 14th century. Source.

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 45 (Saint George)   Leave a comment

Today is the commemoration of Saint George across many Christian traditions, so it occurred to me that it would be suitable to offer a brief look at the text of his martyrdom in Sin. geo. 62, specifically the beginning, the end, and the scribes mini-colophon. These two short passages will not only grant us an opportunity to study some grammar and vocabulary, as usual, but also, since images of the manuscript are easily accessible at E-corpus (along with other manuscripts, Georgian and otherwise, from Saint Catharine’s, but not the new finds), an opportunity to study Georgian scripts and handwriting, mostly nusxuri, but also some asomtavruli. For a detailed treatment of this tenth century manuscript, where the Saint George martyrdom is found on ff. 29rb-38vb, see Gérard Garitte’s Catalogue des manuscrits géorgiens littéraires du Mont Sinaï, CSCO 165, Subs. 9 (Louvain, 1956), pp. 197-209. Images of the manuscript are available here, images 30-40; I include one image of the last few lines below, but I encourage you to have a look at the other parts, too.

This Georgian version is close, but not identical, to BHG 672, published by Krumbacher, Der heilige Georg in der griechischen Überlieferung, pp. 41ff. (This volume is available at Hathi Trust here, where it is readable, but one must have a partner login to download the book. I have not yet found the volume openly downloadable anywhere else.) For convenient comparison, here are the two Greek passages from Krumbacher that correspond to those given below in Georgian:

p. 41 (introductory parag. is not in Georgian) : ἐγένετο τοίνυν κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρὸν τῆς σατανικῆς εἰδωλολατρείας ἐπικρατούσης κατὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων βασιλεῦσαι Διοκλητιανὸν τῆς Ῥωμαίων ἀρχῆς λοιμόν τινα καὶ θῆρα ἄγριον γενόμενον κατὰ τῆς τοῦ Χριστοῦ ποίμνης ἡττώμενον σφόδρα τῇ πλάνῃ τῶν ματαίων εἰδώλων.

p. 51: ἐγὼ δὲ Πασικράτης ὁ δοῦλος τοῦ ἁγίου Γεωργίου ἀκολουθήσας τῷ ἐμῷ δεσπότῃ ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τὰ ὑπομνήματα βεβαίως συνέταξα· καὶ μακάριος ὁ πιστεύσας Χριστῷ τῷ ἀληθινῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν καὶ σωτῆρι, ᾧ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἀμήν.

In what follows, I give a line-by-line transcription of these passages from the manuscript in whatever script they appear there, followed by a transliteration into mxedruli, some vocabulary and notes, and finally an ET. Abbreviations are resolved and indicated by parentheses. (For the asomtavruli and nusxuri to be visible on your machine, you must have a font that includes them.)

[29rb, eight lines from bottom]

ႠႮႰႨႪႱႠ ႩႢ ႼႠႫႤႡႠჂ

Ⴜ(ႫႨ)ႣႨႱႠ ႢႤႭႰႢႨႱႠ:

Ⴞ(ⴍⴊⴍ) ⴐ(ⴀ)ⴏ(ⴀⴋ)ⴑ ⴈⴂⴈ ⴃⴀⴄ<ⴎ>ⴗⴐⴀ ⴉⴄⴐⴎ

ⴇⴋⴐⴀⴞⴍⴣⴐⴄⴁⴀⴑⴀ ⴄⴘⴋⴀⴉ

ⴈⴑⴀⴑⴀ ⴗ(ⴍⴅⴄ)ⴊⴈ ⴑⴍⴔⴄⴊⴈ ⴈⴗⴍ

ⴁⴄⴐⴛⴄⴌⴇⴀ ⴆ(ⴄⴃ)ⴀ ⴋⴄⴔⴡ ⴐ(ⴍⴋ)ⴊ(ⴈ)

ⴑⴀ ⴑⴀⴞⴄⴊⴈ ⴄⴐⴕⴍⴓⴀ ⴃⴈⴍⴉ

ⴊⴈⴒⴈⴀⴌⴄ ⴋⴤⴄⴚⴈ ⴋⴛⴣⴌ

[29va]

ⴅⴀⴐⴄ ⴂ(ⴀ)ⴌⴋⴐⴗⴍⴣⴌⴄⴊⴈ ⴑⴀ

ⴋⴜⴗⴑⴍⴇⴀ ⴕ(ⴐⴈⴑⴒ)ⴄⴑⴇⴀ

აპრილსა კგ წამებაჲ წ(მი)დისა გეორგისა

ხ(ოლო) რ(ა)ჟ(ამ)ს იგი დაე<პ>ყრა კერპთმსახურებასა ეშმაკისასა ყ(ოვე)ლი სოფელი იყო ბერძენთა ზ(ედ)ა მეფჱ რ(ომ)ლ(ი)სა სახელი ერქუა დიოკლიტიანე მჴეცი მძჳნვარე განმრყუნელი სამწყსოთა ქ(რისტ)ესთა

  • და-ე-პყრ-ა aor pass 3sg დაპყრობა to take, possess, grab, grip (for the CV -ე- and passives, see Deeters § 160)
  • კერპთმსახურებაჲ idol worship (კერპი idol [here with the pl-marking -თ] + მსახურებაჲ service > worship [cf. λατρεία])
  • ბერძენი Greek, Roman
  • მჴეცი wild beast
  • მძჳნვარი raging, angry, furious
  • განმრყუნელი corrupting, perverting
  • სამწყსოჲ flock

April 23: The Martyrdom of Saint George

Now when the whole word was gripped with diabolical (lit. of the devil) idolatry, there was a king over the Romans whose name was Diocletian, a raging beast corrupting the flocks of Christ.

* * *

[38va, seven lines from bottom]

Ⴃⴀ ⴋⴄ ⴁⴀⴑⴈⴀⴌⴉⴀⴐⴒⴍⴑ ⴋⴍⴌⴀ

ⴜ(ⴋⴈ)ⴃⴈⴑⴀ ⴂ(ⴈⴍⴐⴂ)ⴈⴑⴀ ⴘⴄⴍⴣⴃⴄⴂ ⴍ(ⴣⴔⴀⴊ)ⴀ

ⴙⴄⴋⴑⴀ. ⴃⴀ ⴀⴖⴅⴜⴄⴐⴄ ⴜⴀ

ⴋⴄⴁⴀⴢ ⴄⴑⴄ ⴋⴈⴑⴈ ⴝⴄⴘⴋⴀⴐⴈ

ⴒⴀⴃ ⴃⴀ ⴍⴣⴕⴚⴄⴅⴄⴊⴀⴃ. ⴃⴀ

ⴌⴄⴒⴀⴐ ⴀⴐⴑ ⴐ(ⴍⴋⴄ)ⴊⴑⴀ ⴠⴐⴜⴋⴄⴌⴄⴑ (letters ⴀⴐ of ⴀⴐⴑ wr. supralinearly)

ⴕ(ⴐⴈⴑⴒ)ⴄ ⴖ(ⴋⴄⴐ)ⴇⴈ ⴝⴄⴘⴋⴀⴐⴈⴒⴈ.

[38vb]

ⴃⴀ ⴋⴤⴑⴌⴄⴊⴈ ⴙ(ⴍⴣⴄ)ⴌⴈ ⴐ(ⴍⴋ)ⴊⴈⴑⴀ

ⴀⴐⴑ ⴃ(ⴈⴃⴄ)ⴁ(ⴀ)ⴢ ⴇⴀⴌⴀ ⴋⴀⴋⴈⴇ ⴃⴀ

ⴑⴍⴣⴊⴈⴇ ⴜ(ⴋⴈ)ⴃⴈⴇⴍⴣⴐⴇ.

ⴍ(ⴣ)ⴉ(ⴍⴣⴌⴍⴣⴇ)ⴈ ⴍ(ⴣ)ⴉ(ⴍⴣⴌⴈⴑⴀⴋⴃ)ⴄ ⴀ(ⴋⴡ)ⴌ

და მე ბასიანკარტოს მონაჲ წ(მი)დისა გ(იორგ)ისა შეუდეგ ო(ჳფალს)ა ჩემსა და აღვწერე წამებაჲ ესე მისი ჭეშმარიტად და უქცეველად და ნეტარ არს რ(ომე)ლსა ჰრწმენეს ქ(რისტ)ე ღ(მერ)თი ჭეშმარიტი. [38vb] და მჴსნელი ჩ(ოჳე)ნი რ(ომ)ლისა არს დ(იდე)ბ(ა)ჲ თანა მამით და სულით წ(მი)დითურთ. ო(ჳ)კ(ოჳნოჳთ)ი ო(ჳ)კ(ოჳნისამდ)ე ამ(ჱ)ნ

  • შე-უ-დეგ aor 1sg შედგომა to follow
  • აღ-ვ-წერ-ე aor 1sg აღწერა to write
  • უქცეველად without changing anything
  • ჰ-რწმენ-ეს aor conj 3sg O3 რწმენა to believe (indir. vb) (cf. Jn 7:38 Ad რომელსა ჰრწმენეს ჩემდამო ὁ πιστεύων εἰς ἐμέ; Jn 20:29 Ad რამეთუ მიხილე და გრწმენა; ნეტარ, რომელთა არა უხილავ და ჰრწმენეს ὅτι ἑώρακάς με πεπίστευκας; μακάριοι οἱ μὴ ἰδόντες καὶ πιστεύσαντες)
  • მჴსნელი saving, rescuing > savior

And I Basiankartos [Gr. Pasikrátēs], the servant of Saint George, followed my master and I wrote down this his martyrdom truthfully and without changing anything, and blessed is he who will believe in Christ, the true God, and our savior, to whom the glory belongs, together with the Father and the Holy Spirit, forever and ever. Amen.

* * *

Sin. geo. 62, f. 38vb, lines 1-4

Sin. geo. 62, f. 38vb, lines 1-4

And finally, the scribe’s mini-colophon, written small, has one line in asomtavruli then one again in nusxuri:

ႫႭႫႨჄႱႤႬႤ Ⴜ(ႨႬႠႸ)Ⴄ Ⴖ(ႫႰႧ)ႨႱႠ

ⴜ(ⴋⴈⴃⴀ)ⴍ ⴂ(ⴈⴍⴐⴂ)ⴈ ⴃⴀ ⴋⴄ(ⴍ)ⴞ ⴂ(ⴍⴣⴄ)ⴗ(ⴀ)ⴅ ⴀ(ⴋⴡ)ⴌ

მომიჴსენე წინაშე ღმრთისა წმიდაო გიორგი და მეოხ გოჳეყავ ა(მჱ)ნ

  • მო-მ-ი-ჴსენ-ე impv 2sg O1 მოჴსენება to remember (cf. Lk 23:42 Ad მომიჴსენე მე, უფალო, რაჟამს მოხჳდოდი სუფევითა მით შენითა μνήσθητί μου ὅταν ἔλθῃς εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν σου [მოხჳდოდი (მო-ხ-უიდ-ოდ-ი) is pres conj 2sg მოსლვა])
  • მეოხი intercessor, helper
  • გოჳ-ე-ყავ aor imv 2sg O1pl ყოფა to be; to do (with the previous word, to intercede)

Remember me in God’s presence, Saint George, and intercede for us! Amen.

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 43 (on natural transformations)   1 comment

I was first led to a sentence in the passage below thanks to a citation in the Georgian dictionary of Sarjveladze and Fähnrich (2005), 632, s.v. მბუვარეჲ, “Insekt”, the sentence coming from the Georgian version of Basil’s nine homilies on the Hexaemeron, ed. Ilia Abuladze — უძველესი რედაკციები ბასილი კესარიელის «ექუსთა დღეთაჲსა» და გრიგოლ ნოსელის თარგმანებისა «კაცისა აგებულებისათჳს» X-XIII სს-ის ხელნაწერთა მიხედვით / Древнейшие Редакции «Шестоднева» Василия Кесарийского и Толкования «Об Устроении Человека» Григория Нисского по Рукописям X-XIII вв. (The Oldest [Georgian] Versions of the Hexaemeron of Basil of Caesarea and Gregory of Nyssa’s De Natura Hominis in 10th-13th -century Manuscripts) — p. 121.3-7. (S. & F. translate the sentence in question, “Man berichtet uns über den Wurm Indiens, der Hörner hat, daß sie zuerst Würmer sind und dann Insekten werden.”) Here now is that sentence with its fuller context, together with the Greek text, and, as usual, Georgian lexical and grammatical aids. The Greek (§ 8.8.12-25) is from S. Giet, Basile de Césarée. Homélies sur l’hexaéméron, 2nd edn., Sources chrétiennes 26 bis (Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1968), the 19th-cent. ET of which will be found here and elsewhere online. The Georgian text, from which here p. 121.1-11, is available at TITUS here. (NB a typo in the first two lines there: განცხადები. სათჳს > განცხადებისათჳს.)

Τί φατε, οἱ ἀπιστοῦντες τῷ Παύλῳ περὶ τῆς κατὰ τὴν ἀνάστασιν ἀλλοιώσεως, ὁρῶντες πολλὰ τῶν ἀερίων τὰς μορφὰς μεταβάλλοντα;

რასა იტყჳთ, რომელნი-ეგე უარ-ჰყოფთ პავლეს განცხადებისათჳს აღდგომისა, რაჟამს იხილნეთ განახლებად მრავალნი ცხოველნი ჰაერისანი?

  • ი-ტყუ-ი-თ pres 2pl სიტყუა to say, speak
  • უარ-ჰ-ყოფ-თ pres 2pl უარ-ყოფა to deny, disbelieve
  • განცხადებაჲ revelation (also Epiphany)
  • აღდგომაჲ resurrection
  • ი-ხილ-ნ-ეთ aor 2pl N ხილვა to see
  • განახლება to renew
  • ცხოველი living
  • ჰაერი air

Ὁποῖα καὶ περὶ τοῦ Ἰνδικοῦ σκώληκος ἱστορεῖται τοῦ κερασφόρου· ὃς εἰς κάμπην τὰ πρῶτα μεταβαλὼν, εἶτα προϊὼν βομβυλιὸς γίνεται,

ვითარცა-იგი გუაუწყებენ ჩუენ მატლისა მისთჳს ჰინდოეთისა, რომელსა-იგი ასხენ რქანი, რომელი-იგი პირველ არიან მატლ, და შემდგომად მისა იქმნის იგი მბუვარე,

  • გუ-ა-უწყებ-ენ pres 3pl O1pl(inclusive) უწყება to tell, inform
  • მატლი worm. In this sentence the word serves both for Greek σκώληξ “worm” and κάμπη “caterpillar”.
  • ჰინდოჲ Indian, Ethiopian
  • ა-სხ-ენ pres 3pl (ind. vb.) სხმა to have
  • რქაჲ horn
  • არ-ი-ან pres 3pl ყოფა to be. I am not sure why this should be plural. Note that the A ms (see the apparatus) here has არ-ნ iter pres 3sg after მატლი.
  • ი-ქმნ-ი-ს iter aor 3sg ქმნა to make
  • მბუვარეჲ (buzzing) insect (cf. Rayfield, et al., Dictionary, vol. 2, 873a)

καὶ οὐδὲ ἐπὶ ταύτης ἵσταται τῆς μορφῆς, ἀλλὰ χαύνοις καὶ πλατέσι πετάλοις ὑποπτεροῦται.

და არცაღა ამას სახესა ზედა დაადგრის, არამედ ფრინავნ იგი ფრთითა ლბილითა და ვრცელითა.

  • სახეჲ nature, circumstance, thing
  • და-ა-დგრ-ის pres 3sg დადრომა to remain, stay
  • ფრინ-ავ-ნ iter pres 3sg ფრინვა to fly
  • ფრთეჲ/ფრთაჲ wing
  • ლბილი smooth, soft
  • ვრცელი wide, broad (as adj); muscle (as noun)

Ὅταν οὖν καθέζησθε τὴν τούτων ἐργασίαν ἀναπηνιζόμεναι, αἱ γυναῖκες, τὰ νήματα λέγω ἃ πέμπουσιν ὑμῖν οἱ Σῆρες πρὸς τὴν τῶν μαλακῶν ἐνδυμάτων κατασκευὴν,

ჵ დედანო, რაჟამს დასხდეთ რცხად სთულისა მის თქუენისა, რომელი-იგი გიქმნის თქუენ ჭიამან ყაჭისამან საქუსლად სამოსლისა ლბილისა,

  • და-სხდ-ე-თ aor 2pl დასხდომა to sit
  • რცხა to wash, clean. Greek ἀναπηνίζεσθαι means “to unwind”. Did the Georgian translator read a form of ἀπονίζειν instead (ἀπονιζόμεναι)?
  • სთული thread, string
  • გ-ი-ქმნ-ი-ს iter aor 3sg O2 ქმნა to make
  • ჭიაჲ worm. Greek Σῆρες may either be “Chinese (people)” or “silkworms”; the Georgian translator took it to be the former here, and with a generic singular rather than a plural.
  • ყაჭი silk
  • საქუსალი The lexicon in Abuladze’s edition, p. 252, cites from Orbeliani the definition ქსელი საქსოვი warp (for weaving); the form საქსუსალი (with additional -ს-) is in Rayfield, et al., Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1166, “web, weft, woof”. Cf. also the verb ქუსვა to braid, weave. It must function here almost like a v.n. for “to weave”.
  • სამოსელი garment, clothing

μεμνημέναι τῆς κατὰ τὸ ζῷον τοῦτο μεταβολῆς, ἐναργῆ λαμβάνετε τῆς ἀναστάσεως ἔννοιαν, καὶ μὴ ἀπιστεῖτε τῇ ἀλλαγῇ ἣν Παῦλος ἅπασι κατεπαγγέλλεται.

მოიჴსენეთ თქუენ განახლებაჲ ცხოველისაჲ მის და მოიპოვეთ ჭეშმარიტი განზრახვაჲ განახლებისათჳს აღდგომისა და გრწმენინ განახლებაჲ იგი, რომელ თქუა პავლე.

  • მო-ი-ჴსენ-ე-თ aor imv 2pl მოჴსენება to remember
  • მო-ი-პოვ-ე-თ aor imv 2pl მოპოვნება to get, acquire, earn
  • ჭეშმარიტი true. Greek ἐναργής means “clear, manifest, distinct”.
  • განზრახვაჲ thinking, reasoning (v.n.)
  • გ-რწმენ-ინ aor imv 3sg O2 (ind. vb.) რწმენა to believe, trust
  • თქუა aor 3sg თქუმა to speak, say

Finally, for what it’s worth, here is an ET of the Georgian text:

What do you say, you who deny Paul concerning the revealing of the resurrection, when you see many living things of the air being renewed? As they tell us about that worm of the Indians [or Ethiopians] that has horns, the one which at first is a worm and afterward becomes a buzzing insect. And it does not remain in this shape, but flies with soft and broad wings. O women, when you sit to wash your thread, which the silk worm makes for you to weave soft garments, remember the renewal of that which is living, acquire the true conception concerning the renewal of the resurrection, and believe in that renewal that Paul speaks of!

Posts on the digitized BL Greek manuscripts   Leave a comment

For some time now it has been exciting to watch the progress of digitizing and sharing manuscripts in major collections (BL, BAV, BnF, &c.). Staff at the British Library have provided a lasting service to readers not only by photographing and freely sharing their Greek manuscripts, but also by writing regular blog posts on specific digitized manuscripts at the Medieval manuscripts blog. (See also the Asian and African studies blog for other manuscript highlights.) These posts give a quick survey of what’s available, along with a few example images. Of course, if you’re looking for a specific manuscript, you can search for it, but these posts are a great way to stumble upon new things. So for those who might want to peruse any or all of these several posts on digitized Greek manuscripts by the BL staff, here are links for them all in one place, arranged by date from most to least recent. A hearty thanks to the BL and the sponsors of this project!

http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2015/03/the-greek-manuscripts-of-robert-curzon-part-ii.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2015/03/greek-manuscripts-digitisation-project-the-final-seventy-five-manuscripts-go-online.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2015/03/the-greek-manuscripts-of-robert-curzon-part-i.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2015/01/greek-manuscripts-digitisation-project-another-thirty-manuscripts-go-online.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2014/12/an-early-holiday-present-forty-six-new-greek-manuscripts-online.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2014/11/greek-digitisation-project-update-40-manuscripts-newly-uploaded.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2014/10/another-greek-update-forty-six-more-manuscripts-online.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2014/09/forty-four-more-greek-manuscripts-online.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2014/08/twenty-four-more-greek-manuscripts-online.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2014/07/thirty-three-greek-biblical-manuscripts-added-to-digitised-manuscripts.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2014/03/codex-sinaiticus-added-to-digitised-manuscripts.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2013/12/the-constitution-of-athens.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2013/10/precious-papyri.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2013/10/fancy-another-giant-list-of-digitised-manuscript-hyperlinks.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2013/09/the-bounty-of-byzantium.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2013/08/hooray-for-homer.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2012/12/new-testament-from-oldest-complete-bible-available-online.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2012/03/the-theodore-psalter.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2011/12/an-early-christmas-present-.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2011/11/digitised-manuscripts-500-landmark.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2011/10/digitised-manuscripts-update.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2011/06/greek-manuscripts-update.html
http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2011/05/more-greek-manuscripts-digitised-by-the-british-library.html

Reading challenge, April 2015   2 comments

The study of spoken and (ancient) written languages intersect perhaps less than might be desirable, but sic semper erat, sic semper erit. Nevertheless, I would like to take a cue from Olle Linge’s Hacking Chinese (http://challenges.hackingchinese.com/) and suggest an intentional, focused reading effort for ancient language students.

For the month of April 2015, let’s take an opportunity to push reading limits, or at least to re-kindle reading habits in this or that language. It is no secret that wide exposure to multitudes of lines is a boon to philological understanding and enjoyment. By “exposure” I mean reading with understanding. And there’s the rub. This is what makes it possible for an advanced student to do 100 pages of text (or more) in a month, and a novice to do much less: the novice requires far more frequent recourse to the lexicon, grammatical tables, perhaps a translation, etc. than the more experienced user. But the payoff is experience itself. Here is some counsel from the great sinologist George A. Kennedy:

The value of a reference work is its capacity to furnish facts quickly, and a good reference work must be a well-ordered affair. But the quickness with which these facts are appropriated depends in large part on the skill of the user. And this skill results only from diligent practice. It is not enough to know about a book of reference; one must handle it, thumb the pages, know where the index is, know what sort of information it gives. You are not qualified for research unless you can locate the facts that are available quickly.

DO NOT SKIP ANY SUGGESTED EXERCISE

MAKE UP MORE OF THEM FOR YOURSELF

from his Introduction to Sinology: Being a Guide to the Tz’u Hai (Ci hai), (New Haven, 1981), 1 (emphasis in original)

He has the 辭海 cí hăi in mind, here as a reference work for students of Chinese history, but his advice is equally applicable to textual experience in a language, or philological experience.

Here, then, is the challenge for the month: not a contest, but an individual exhortation to purposefully spend a given amount of time and effort moving — or more picturesquely, plowing, sailing, crunching, &c. — through a text or texts, with understanding. You pick the language, the genre, the text(s), the length. The unique thing is to read carefully more than you might normally do for this month. It might be an opportunity to work especially hard on a language you’re now closely involved with, or it might be an opportunity to return to a language you’ve not read in a while. Simply to be not too vague, here are some language suggestions in no particular order (I assume that if you know the language well enough to do this, you know some texts to read, but in any case, the Bible is usually a good place to start due to the accessibility of texts and the ease of comparison with other versions):

  • Armenian
  • Christian Palestinian Aramaic
  • Syriac
  • Arabic
  • Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
  • Greek
  • Sogdian
  • Persian
  • Georgian
  • Turkish
  • Coptic
  • Gǝʿǝz
  • Uyghur

Do more than one language, if you like. How about reading the same text in more than one language? Read from printed editions, read from manuscripts, read from chrestomathies, whatever suits you. Quant à moi, my reading goals for the month include the following texts:

  1. Persian. 10 pages in the so-called Persian Diatessaron
  2. Turkish. Ali Bey’s Bible: Jonah 1-2; Mt 4:1-11; 11:17-19; 15:21-28
  3. Coptic. “Marina” (pp. 27-33) and “Siebenschläfer” (pp. 21–24) in W. Till, Koptische Heiligen- Und Martyrerlegenden: Texte, Übersetzungen Und Indices, vol. 1, Orientalia Christiana Analecta 102 (Rome: Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, 1935); volumes available here. Further on this story in Coptic, see here from my hagiography bibliography.
  4. Georgian. The five texts on David & Constantine in I. Abuladze and E. Gabidzashvili, ძველი ქართული აგიოგრაფიული ლიტერატურის ძეგლები, წიგნი IV სვინაქსარული რედაქციები (XI-XVIII სს.) (Monuments of Old Georgian Hagiographic Literature, Vol. 4, Synaxarion Redactions, [11th-18th Centuries]) (Tbilisi, 1968), 359-366; and the Parable of the Man & Elephant in the two versions of Barlaam and Ioasaph.
  5. Old Turkic/Uyghur. The text on p. 53 of  W. Bang, “Türkische Bruchstücke einer Nestorianischen Georgspassion,” Le Muséon 39 (1926): 41–75 (cf. Gabain, Gr., p. 264); and the text in P. Zieme, “Ein uigurisches Sündenbekenntnis,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 32 (1969): 107-121.
  6. Arabic/Garšūnī. Epistle of Ps.-Dionysius to Timothy, SMMJ 263

If you like, share what you plan to read in the comments below. And any thoughts on this enterprise generally are welcome, too. Happy studying!

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 42: Purim edition, Esther 7:7-10   Leave a comment

Since we are at Purim’s doorstep, here are a few verses from Esther in Old Georgian with vocabulary and some notes. The only version of the book accessible and known to me is that in the so-called Mcxeta Bible, more varied and more lately compiled than the Oshki/Jerusalem text and the old lectionaries. (An electronic edition of the Mxceta Bible is available at TITUS here.)

The book of Esther in the Greek Bible is known not only for having six parts that do not correspond to anything in the Masoretic text, but also for having two distinct versions, the “LXX” or “Old Greek” version and the “alpha text”. For some details, including edition history, see D.J.A. Clines, The Esther Scroll, chapters 6, 7, and the appendix, parts of which should be available for some people, at least, here. See also Swete, Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, pp. 257-259, and T.M. Law, When God Spoke Greek, pp. 63-64. Hanhart’s Göttingen edition of Esther includes both texts, as do the Cambridge Septuagint and Lagarde, Librorum veteris testamenti canonicorum pars prior graece. The NETS English version of both texts is available here.

The passage we are concerned with is numbered 7:7-10 in (at least most) English Bibles and in the Georgian edition referred to above. The two Greek texts are numbered differently from each other in all of the editions I have looked at (and NETS), but they will be found in Hanhart’s ed. on pp. 183-185, in the Cambridge Septuagint here and here, and in Lagarde here. For a few more notes, see Field here. (If you’d like a visual aid for the biblical scene just before this one, see Ernest Normand’s here and Doré’s here. A 14th-century miniature from Vind. Pal. 1191 with Haman hanging is available through HMML’s Vivarium here, and Barry Moser’s rendering of Haman standing before the gallows is here.)

I had not read any of Esther in Georgian until recently and when comparing the Georgian text of the Mcxeta Bible with the two Greek versions I was struck by how much this Georgian version is an amalgamation of the two Greek texts: it follows neither absolutely. Before any conclusion about this can be reached, the entire book must be studied, of course, alongside the Greek texts and the thick apparatūs critici of the aforementioned editions, as well as the Armenian version. But for now, we can confirm that at least for this passage, the Georgian version was not based on a text cleanly and simply like either the LXX Esther or the alpha-text Esther, but it shows features of both. Indeed, a color-coded edition — one much simpler than that recently executed for Faulkner’s Sound and the Fury; see also here and here — would show how apparently amalgamated this Georgian translation is.

Here, accompanied by some notes for vocabulary and grammar, is the text from TITUS, but with two places that seem to need correction in verse 7: ახლდნა > ახლდა and ევედრებთდა > ევედრებოდა.

7 და ზე ახლდა სმისაგან, განვიდა მტილად. ხოლო ამანს შეეშინა და შეუვრდა ფერჴთა დედოფლისათა. და დავარდა ცხედარსა მისსა ზედა. და ევედრებოდა დედოფალსა, რამეთუ ჰხედვიდა თავსა თჳსსა ბოროტსა შინა.

ზე up | ახლდ-ა aor 3sg ახლდომა to jump up | სმაჲ drinking, getting drunk | გან-ვიდ-ა aor 3sg განსლვა to go out, go forth | მტილი garden | შე-ე-შინ-ა aor 3sg (indir. vb) შეშინება to be afraid | შე-უ-ვრდ-ა aor 3sg შევრდომა to fall down | და-ვარდ-ა aor 3sg დავრდომა to fall down | ცხედარი bed | ე-ვედრებ-ოდ-ა impf 3sg ვედრება to ask, beg, implore | ჰ-ხედვ-ი-დ-ა impf 3sg ხედვა to see

8 ხოლო მეფემან მოაქცია მიერ მტილით სასმურადვე და იხილა ამან ცხედარსა ზედა დავრდომილი და ევედრებოდა დედოფალსა. ჰრქუა მეფემან: ვერ კმა-გეყოა შენ შეცოდება მეფისა, არამედ ცოლსაცა ჩემსა ჰმძლავრებ ჩემ წინაშე სახლსა შინა ჩემსა? ამანს რაჲ ესმა ესე; ჰრცხვენა პირსა წინაშე

მო-ა-ქცი-ა aor 3sg მოქცევა to (re)turn | სასმური drinking-place | ი-ხილ-ა aor 3sg ხილვა to see | დავრდომილი ptcp დავრდომა to fall down | კმა-გ-ე-ყო-ა aor 3sg O2 (+ interr ptcl) კმა-ყოფა to be enough for, satisfy | შეცოდება to sin against | ჰ-მძლავრებ pres 2sg მძლავრება to use force, violence with | ესმა aor 3sg (indir. vb) სმენა to hear | ჰ-რცხვენ-ა aor 3sg O3 რცხჳნება to shame | პირი face (here, the king’s); apparently reading Greek διετράπη τῷ προσώπῳ as “he was confounded at (his) face”

9 და თქუა ბუგათან, ერთმან მონათგანმან მისმან, საჭურისმან: აჰა, ძელი ეზოსა შინა მისსა, რომელი მომზადა ამან ერგასის წყრთა, რამეთუ მოეკვეთა იგი, რათა აღაგოს მარდოქე, რომელი იტყოდა მეფისათჳს კეთილსა. და თქუა მეფემან: დამოჰკიდეთ იგი მას!

საჭურისი eunuch | ძელი tree | ეზოჲ court, yard, house | მო-მზად-ა aor 3sg მომზადება to prepare | ერგასისი fifty | წყრთაჲ cubit | მო-ე-კვეთ-ა aor 3sg მოკვეთა to cut off, sever | აღ-ა-გ-ო-ს aor conj 3sg აღგება to put up (The word usually means to make, create; prepare; or load. It apparently corresponds to ἵνα κρεμάσῃ, but this is not the regular word for hanging. Cf. the following vocabulary word.) | დამო-ჰ-კიდ-ე-თ aor imv 2pl O3 დამოკიდება to hang (tr.)

10 და მოაბეს ამან მასვე ძელსა, რომელიცა მზა-ეყო მარდოქესთჳს. და* მიაქცია ღმერთმან ზრახვა მისი მისავე და სახლსა ზედა მისსა. და წარიჴადა** მეფემან ბეჭედი თჳსი ჴელისაგან მისისა და დაბეჭდეს ყოველსა საცხორებელსა ამანისასა. და მაშინ დასცხრა მეფე გულისწყრომისა მისისაგან

*On the following sentence, see the note below.

**For წარიჴადა მეფემან ბეჭედი თჳსი ჴელისაგან მისისა, cf. Gen 41:42.

მო-ა-ბ-ეს aor 3pl მობმა to fasten, bind on | მზა-ე-ყო aor 3sg მზა-ყოფა to prepare | მი-ა-ქცი-ა aor 3sg მიქცევა to turn back | ზრახვა sight, thought, intention | წარ-ი-ჴად-ა aor 3sg წარჴდა to pull off | ბეჭედი (signet-)ring | და-ბეჭდ-ე-ს aor 3pl დაბეჭდვა to seal | საცხორებელი possession(s) | და-ს-ცხრ-ა aor 3sg დაცხრომა to relax, let o.s. go | გულისწყრომაჲ anger

Note. Concerning the explanatory sentence და მიაქცია ღმერთმან ზრახვა მისი მისავე და სახლსა ზედა მისსა in verse 10, as far as I can tell, there is nothing in any Greek (or Armenian) witness to correspond to it. We might translate it, “And God returned his intention upon him and his household,” the pronominal references, I think, being for Haman, that is, God brought Haman’s plan to pass on himself and his own family. The language is familiar from at least a few other places:

Gen 8:11 JerLect
და მიაქცია მისავე ტრედმან მან
καὶ ἀνέστρεψεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ περιστερὰ

1 Kg 13:6 Mcx
მოიქცა ჴელი მეფისა მისავე
ἐπέστρεψεν τὴν χεῖρα τοῦ βασιλέως πρὸς αὐτόν

2 Kg 1:5 Mcx
მიიქცეს მოციქულნი იგი მისავე
ἐπεστράφησαν οἱ ἄγγελοι πρὸς αὐτόν

Est 10:8
ღმერთმან მიაქცია ბოროტი მისი მისავე
God returned his evil to him (≈ nothing exactly in Greek Esther here)

The Pericope adulterae in Old Georgian   Leave a comment

Just over a year ago I wrote on the Pericope adulterae in an East Syriac manuscript in our collections (CCM 64; see here). I’ve recently read over the passage in the two Old Georgian versions that include it (Pre-Athonite and Athonite; not in Adishi). Birdsall wrote on it, and Chris Keith discusses the passage in Georgian a little, especially its placement, in his 2009 book (pp. 124-126). As far as I know, the texts have never been published together, nor is any English translation available, so I have prepared a document with a synoptic presentation of each verse of the passage in Greek (NA27) and the two Georgian versions together with some verse-by-verse vocabulary and grammatical notes (file here). I offer no full textual commentary, but some sense of the distinctive readings of each version compared with each other (and with Greek) will also be evident in the English translation of each Georgian version I give below. These English translations are literal, but nevertheless not every difference between the two versions can be indicated.

Bibliography

J. Neville Birdsall, “The Pericope Adulterae in Georgian,” Studia Patristica 39 (2006): 185–92.

Chris Keith, The Pericope Adulterae, the Gospel of John, and the Literacy of Jesus (Leiden, 2009).

(See some artwork from HMML collections related to the scene here, here, here, and here.)

English translation

PA 7:53 And each one left for his home.
At 7:53 And each one left for his home.

PA 8:1 But Jesus went up to the Mount of Olives.
At 8:1 But Jesus left for the Mount of Olives.

PA 8:2 And the next day [OR in the morning] he went again to the temple, and all the people were coming to him, and he was teaching them.
At 8:2 And at dawn he went again to the temple, and all the people were coming to him, and he sat down and was teaching them.

PA 8:3 The high priests and Pharisees brought a woman and stood her in their midst.
At 8:3 But the scribes and Pharisees brought him a woman, who was caught in adultery openly before the people, and they stood her in their midst.

PA 8:4 And they said, “Teacher, this woman was caught seen in adultery.
At 8:4 And they said, because they were testing him, “Teacher, this woman was caught in adultery openly.

PA 8:5 And in the Law of Moses, for such [women] he commands us to throw stone[s]. Now, what do you say?“
At 8:5 And Moses commanded us in the Law to throw stone[s] at such [women]. What, then, do you say?“

PA 8:6 But they said this and were testing him, that they might have something to accuse him of, but Jesus was looking downward and was marking on the ground with his finger.
At 8:6 But they said this and were testing him, that they might have [something] to accuse him of, but Jesus bent down to the ground, was marking on the ground with his finger, and he was saying nothing.

PA 8:7 And when they stood there a while and were looking at him, then he straightened up and said to them, “Whoever among you is sinless, let him first throw a stone at that [woman].”
At 8:7 And when they stood there a while and were looking at him, he straightened up and said to them, “Whoever of you is sinless, let him first throw a stone at that [woman].”

PA 8:8 And he again bent down to the ground.
At 8:8 And he again bent down and was marking on the ground.

PA 8:9 But when they heard it, the elders and scribes began, and one by one they were going away, and he himself was left alone, and the woman stood before Jesus.
At 8:9 But when they heard it, exposed from their conscience, they were going away one by one. They began from the elders, until he himself was left alone, and the woman stood in the midst.

PA 8:10 And Jesus looked and said to her, “Woman, where are your accusers? No one accuses you?”
At 8:10 And Jesus straightened up and saw no one except the woman, and he said to her, “Where are your accusers? No one accused you?”

PA 8:11 But she said, “No one, Lord!” And Jesus said to her, “I don’t accuse you either. Go, and from now on don’t sin.”
At 8:11 But she said, “No one, Lord!” But Jesus said to her, “I don’t accuse you either. Go, and from now on don’t sin.”

%d bloggers like this: