Archive for the ‘Greek’ Category

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 56 (Lk 1:15)   1 comment

In the foretelling of John the Baptist’s birth, the archangel Gabriel tells John’s father-to-be, Zacharias, that John should abstain from drinking alcohol (Luke 1:15):

ἔσται γὰρ μέγας ἐνώπιον [τοῦ] κυρίου,
καὶ οἶνον καὶ σίκερα οὐ μὴ πίῃ,
καὶ πνεύματος ἁγίου πλησθήσεται
ἔτι ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὐτοῦ

This is all seemingly simple enough, but I was surprised to find an interesting reading here in one of the Old Georgian versions of the text. Here it is in the Adishi, Pre-Athonite, and Athonite texts (this verse not extant in ms A-89 or Vind. georg. 2):

Adishi რამეთუ იყოს დიდ წინაშე უფლისა და ღჳნოჲ და სათრობელი და იყი არა სუას და სულითა წმიდითა სავსე იყოს მიერვე მუცლით დედისა თჳსისაჲთ.

  • ღჳნოჲ wine
  • სათრობელი intoxicating drink
  • იყი strong drink
  • სუას aor conj 3s სუმა to drink
  • სავსეჲ full
  • მუცელი belly

PA რამეთუ იყოს დიდ წინაშე უფლისა და ღჳნოჲ და თაფლუჭი არა სუას და სულითა წმიდითა აღივსოს მიერვე დედისმუცლით მისითგან.

  • თაფლუჭი mead (cf. თაფლი honey; see excursus below)
  • აღ-ი-ვს-ოს aor conj 3s აღვსება to fill (NB the CV -ი- > to be filled)

At რამეთუ იყოს დიდ წინაშე უფლისა და ღჳნოჲ და თაფლუჭი არა სუას და სულითა წმიდითა აღივსოს მიერვე დედისმუცლით მისითგან.

In addition, here is an image from the Gospel manuscript BnF géo. 28, f. 111v, col. b., ll. 14-20, which is a 13th-cent. witness to the Athonite version:

bnf_geo_28_f111v_lk1_15

Here is the text from transcribed from nusxuri into mxedruli and with abbreviations resolved:

რ(ამეთუ) იყოს დიდ წ(ინაშ)ე ო(ჳფლ)ისა და ღჳნოჲ და თაფლოჳჭი არა სუას და ს(უ)ლითა წ(მიდ)ითა აღივსოს მიერვე დედისმოჳცლით მისითგ(ა)ნ.

The Adishi text, then, has three in the list of prohibited drinks, while the Pre-Athonite and Athonite have two, just like the Greek. Furthermore, neither the second nor the third in the Adishi list is თაფლუჭი, which we find elsewhere paired with ღჳნოჲ in the “wine and strong drink” passages of the Bible (e.g. Lev 10:9, Num 6:3). (Of the same root as the second word in the Adishi list, სათრობელი, we see დამათრობელი in Jdg 13:4, which also has ძმარი “vinegar” and ყურძენი “grape”.)

Since, alongside Greek, both Armenian and Syriac enter into discussions of the textual lineage of the Georgian Gospels, I’ll give them both here, too. For Syriac, the Old Syriac (Sinaiticus), the Peshitta, and the Ḥarqlean all have simply ḥamrā w-šakrā lā neštē. In Armenian, this part of the verse reads, գինի եւ աւղի մի́ արբցէ. So the witnesses for this verse in both of these languages give simply a bipartite prohibition, just like the two later Georgian versions, not a tripartite one like that of the Adishi text.

********************

On honey-water, or mead

As pointed out above, the word that stands sometimes in the Georgian versions for σίκερα (traditionally “strong drink”, but probably better, “beer”) is თაფლუჭი “mead”, derived from the word თაფლი “honey”. As is well known, mead is a thing and a word with a long history in at least some Indo-European societies (see Pokorny; Buck, Synonyms, §§ 5.84, 5.91). The modern English “mead” goes back to medu in Old English, where there are many derivatives appearing in Beowulf and elsewhere (all of these in Bosworth-Toller), e.g.

  • medoærn banquet-house, place to drink mead
  • medubenc mead-bench
  • medoburg city of mead-drinkers
  • medudrēam mead-revelry
  • medoful mead-cup
  • medoheal mead-hall
  • meoduscenc mead-draft
  • meodosetl mead-seat
  • medostīg path to the mead-hall

(“Honey” itself in OE is unrelated: hunig; see PIE *kₑnəkó- “golden” in Pokorny.) Here are a few other words of the same origin as this word medu in other IE languages (PIE *médhu-). Sanskrit madhu- was used for sweet drinks, including soma, and in line with Avestan maδu- is the Middle and later Persian may “wine” (Mackenzie 55, Steingass 1357). Greek μέθυ (> μεθύω to be drunk > μεθύσκω to make drunk) is a poetic word for wine; it does not mean “mead”. (The latter is μελίτειον, as in Plut. Quaest. Conv. 672b: καὶ μέχρι νῦν τῶν τε βαρβάρων οἱ μὴ ποιοῦντες οἶνον μελίτειον πίνουσιν. Mod. Gr. has ὑδρόμελι like Latin hydromeli, with derivatives in the Romance languages). In Russian, “honey” is мёд (for the color, cf. медь “copper”). The Slavic words for “bear” derive partly from this root, e.g. Russian медведь (honey-eater; cf. Buck, § 3.73). (In Old Georgian, “bear” is დაფჳ [modern დაფვი], as in 1Sam 17:34 JerLect. The word does not sound dissimilar to თაფლი “honey”: should we posit a direct etymological link?) Note that Chubinov/ჩუბინაშვილი (Грузинско-Русско-Французскій Словаръ/Dictionnaire géorgien-russe-français [Saint Petersburg, 1840], 220) defines თაფლუჭი with “сикера” — σίκερα! — and “медовика”.

Lastly, for one more (non-mead) term for drinks, to return to Lk 1:15, Gothic has

jah wein jah leiþu ni drigkid

The first noun is, of course, “wine”, and the second is cognate with OE līþ, “strong drink” (cf. the first element in German Leithaus).

A short scholion on Scylla and Hydra in Armenian   Leave a comment

Another short passage from ACC 119, f. 348v (cf. this post) is a scholion on Scylla and Hydra, unrelated to the surrounding texts.

ACC 119, f. 348v.

ACC 119, f. 348v.

So it reads,

Գի՛րք ասեն սիկղ՛ եւ հիդրայն ծով<ա>յինք սիկղ՛ն շու՛ն ասի գ գլխի եւ հիդրայն չար եւ՛ս քան զնայ

  • ծովային adj < ծով, -ուց sea
  • շուն, շանց dog

Books say Scylla and Hydra are sea-creatures. Scylla is said to be a dog with three heads, and Hydra to be more dangerous than that.

I have not found in Greek any lines exactly corresponding to these, but for what they’re worth, here are a few loosely related places from Greek literature. (Translations my own.) The following line from Anaxilas (= fr. 22) is quoted in Athenaeus, Deipn. 13.6:

τρίκρανος Σκύλλα, ποντία κύων.

three-headed Scylla, a dog of the sea

The Hydra is canonically described in Ps.-Apoll., Bibliotheca 2.77:

εἶχε δὲ ἡ ὕδρα ὑπερμέγεθες σῶμα, κεφαλὰς ἔχον ἐννέα, τὰς μὲν ὀκτὼ θνητάς, τὴν δὲ μέσην ἀθάνατον.

The Hydra had a huge body with nine heads, eight of them mortal and the middle one immortal.

The Hydra is described as ἀμφίκρανος in Eur., Her. fur. There (1274-1278) Herakles (also mentioning Cerberus) says

τὴν τ᾽ ἀμφίκρανον καὶ παλιμβλαστῆ κύνα

ὕδραν φονεύσας μυρίων τ᾽ ἄλλων πόνων

διῆλθον ἀγέλας κἀς νεκροὺς ἀφικόμην,

Ἅιδου πυλωρὸν κύνα τρίκρανον ἐς φάος

ὅπως πορεὐσαιμ᾽ ἐντολαῖς Εὐρυσθέως.

Having killed the dog with re-sprouting heads all around, the Hydra, Ι completed scores οf countless other toils and reached the dead, to bring to light at Eurystheus’ command Hades’ porter, the three-headed dog.

Hesychius says the Hydra is a water-snake (ὁ ὕδρος ὄφις. οἱ δὲ τὸν χέρσυδρον), and much later a specific description as “wicked” we find in Joannes Tzetzes, Chil. 2.36.263,

Καὶ πεντηκοντακέφαλος ὕδρα τις ἡ κακία.

And a Hydra, the evil with fifty heads.

Finally, the Ps.-Nonnos Scholia (surviving in Greek, Armenian, Syriac, and Georgian) have paragraphs on both creatures: Scholia Inv I 49 (Arm 46 [Manandian, p. 264]) on the Hydra, and 52 (Arm 49 [Manandian, pp. 264-265]), on Scylla. (I hope to offer a post on both of these paragraphs soon.)

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 55 (Thalassius 1.12)   Leave a comment

This time we turn to the Περί ἀγάπης και ἐγκρατείας — Four Centuries (400 Chapters) on Love and Self-control — of Abba Thalassius (CPG 7848), a contemporary of Maximus the Confessor. The work is made up of 400 sentences on the spiritual life and practice. Given the work’s character as apophthegmatic, it will serve as an excellent text for language learners, whether in Greek, Georgian, or Arabic (on which see GCAL I 406): the whole work is not long, many of the sentences are short and grammatically simple, and there is frequent repetition of certain lexical items.

The Greek text is readily available in (at least) two editions:

An edition of the Georgian translation, based chiefly on Athos 49, but with reference to the other two known copies, was published by my friend, Fr. Andrew Boroda (ა. ბოროდა) as an addendum to the Annual Calendar of the Georgian Orthodox Church, 1992 (Tbilisi), pp. 414-483: წმიდა აბბა თალასე „სიყვარულის, მარხვის და სულიერი მოქალაქობის შესახებ‟. The Georgian translation is thought to be the work of George the Hagiorite. At least three manuscripts are known: Athos 49 (early 11th cent.), A55 (11th/12th cent.), and the much later A66 (1710). According to Blake, who cataloged the Georgian Athos manuscripts, the Athos manuscript is the work of George the Hagiorite himself.

Before turning to the Georgian again, note that there is an accessible digitized manuscript of the Greek text in BL Add. 24375, with the saying below (1.12) on ff. 79r-v. It does not differ from the PG and Philokalia editions.

Add MS 24375, f. 79r, bottom

Add MS 24375, f. 79r, bottom

Add MS 24375, f. 79v, top

Add MS 24375, f. 79v, top

The PG and Philokalia editions for this sentence read as follows:

δυνατὸς ἀνὴρ ἐκεῖνος ὑπάρχει, ὁ πράξει καὶ γνώσει τὴν κακίαν ἀπελαύνων.

Georgian tr.

ძლიერი კაცი იგი არს, რომელი საქმით და ცნობით და სიტყჳთ და გონებით უკეთურებასა სდევნიდეს.

  • ძლიერი strong, able, capable
  • საქმეჲ deed, doing; thing
  • ცნობაჲ understanding, grasping, recognition, perception
  • სიტყუაჲ speech, talking, word(s)
  • გონებაჲ thought(s), thinking
  • უკეთურებაჲ evil
  • ს-დევნ-იდ-ეს pres conj 3sg O3 დევნა to drive out, displace, persecute, chase

An ET of the Georgian:

Able is the man who shall by deed, by knowledge, by word, and by thought drive out evil.

The Georgian version, then, compared with the Greek text of the PG and Phil. editions, has two additional nouns. Note also the Georgian pres conj for Greek pres ptcp.

More to come, I hope, in Old Georgian phrases and sentences from this text, but for now, let this sentence suffice!

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 54 (Lk 4:23: Physician, heal thyself!)   1 comment

Below is Lk 4:23 in the Old Georgian Adishi version, divided into phrases. For comparison, I also give Greek, Syriac (Peshitta), and Armenian (Künzle). (Since the online display of Syriac is still so sketchy depending on a machine’s setup, I give the Syriac in transliteration.)

  1. καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς·
  2. āmar lhon Išoʿ
  3. Եւ ասէ ցնոսա·
  4. და თავადმან ჰრქუა მათ:
  • თავადი he himself
  1. πάντως ἐρεῖτέ μοι τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην·
  2. kbar tēmrun li matlā hānā
  3. ապաքէն ասիցէ՞ք առ իս զառակս զայս·
  4. მრქუათ სამე იგავი ესე:
  • მ-რქუ-ა-თ aor conj 2pl O1 რქუმა to say
  • სამე well
  • იგავი proverb
  1. ἰατρέ, θεράπευσον σεαυτόν·
  2. āsyā assā napšāk
  3. բժիշկ. բժշկեա զանձն քո·
  4. მკურნალო, განიკურნე თავი შენი!
  • მკურნალი physician, healer
  • გან-ი-კურნ-ე aor impv 2sg განკურნება to heal
  • თავი head > self
  1. ὅσα ἠκούσαμεν γενόμενα εἰς τὴν Καφαρναοὺμ ποίησον καὶ ὧδε ἐν τῇ πατρίδι σου.
  2. w-kul da-šmaʿn da-ʿbadt ba-kparnaḥum ʿbed āp hārkā ba-mdi(n)tāk [Sinaiticus paraphrases: w-aylēn da-šmaʿton d-ʿebdet ba-kparnaḥām tēmrun li ʿbed āp hārkā ba-mdi(n)tāk]
  3. որչափ լուա́ք զոր արարեր ի կափառնաւում. արա եւ ա́ստ ի քում գաւառի։.
  4. რავდენი გუესმა საქმე კაფარნაომს, ქმენ აქაცა, მამულსა შენსა!
  • გუ-ე-სმ-ა aor 3sg O1pl (indir. vb) სმენა to hear
  • საქმე thing
  • ქმენ aor impv 2sg ქმნა to do
  • მამული homeland, place of origin (< მამაჲ father)

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 53 (Brood of vipers; with Armenian)   Leave a comment

As an unsavory address to one’s interlocutors, γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν “brood of vipers”, which both John the Baptist and Jesus use, is one of the more memorable in the New Testament. (For Strack & Billerbeck on γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, see their Kommentar, vol. 1, p. 114.) Here are verses (Mt 3:7, Mt 12:34, Mt 23:33) where it occurs in Greek, Armenian (Künzle), and various Georgian versions with, as usual, vocabulary lists and grammatical notes. (A-89/A-844 is given in both asomtavruli and mxedruli.)

Mt 3:7

Ἰδὼν δὲ πολλοὺς τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων ἐρχομένους ἐπὶ τὸ βάπτισμα αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, τίς ὑπέδειξεν ὑμῖν φυγεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς μελλούσης ὀργῆς;

Եւ տեսեալ զբազումս ի սադուկեցւոցն եւ ի փարիսեցւոց եկեալս ի մկրտութիւնն նորա, ասէ ցնոսա· ծնունդք իժից, ո՞ ցոյց ձեզ փախչել ի բարկութենէն որ գալոցն է։.

  • [the order of “Pharisees and Sadducees” is flipped]
  • մկրտութիւն baptism
  • ծնունդ, ծննդեան, -դոց generation, offspring (also nativity, birth, as in ծնունդ Քրիստոսի = Xmas)
  • իժ, -ից viper
  • ցոյց aor 3sg ցուցանեմ, ցուցի to show, indicate, point out
  • փախչել inf of փախչիմ, -եայ to flee
  • բարկութիւն anger, wrath
  • գալոց (inf >) ptcp գամ, եկի to come (see Meillet, Altarm. Elementarbuch § 105e for this kind of ptcp)

3:7 Adishi

[და] ვითარცა იხილნა ფა[რ]ისეველნი და ს[ად]უკეველნი, მომავალნი ნათლის-ღებად მისგან, ჰრქუა მათ: ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვინ გიჩუენა თქუენ სივლტოლაჲ მერმისა მისგან მომავალისა რისხვისა?

  • [Nothing for πολλούς. An apparent doublet: მერმისა…მომავალისა for μελλούσης.]
  • ი-ხილ-ნ-ა aor 3sg N ხილვა to see
  • მომავალი coming, to come (adj), future
  • ნათლის-ღებაჲ baptism (lit. receiving, taking [ღება] the light [ნათელი]; the active counterpart is ნათლის-ცემაჲ, giving the light > to baptize)
  • ნაშობი born, child
  • იქედნეჲ snake (< ἔχιδνα)
  • გ-ი-ჩუენ-ა aor 3sg O2 ჩუენება to show
  • სივლტოლაჲ running, flight (v.n.)
  • მერმეჲ following, next, future
  • რისხვაჲ wrath, anger

3:7 Athonite

და ვითარცა იხილნა მრავალნი ფარისეველნი და სადუკეველნი, მომავალნი ნათლის-ღებად მისგან, ჰრქუა მათ: ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვინ გიჩუენა თქუენ სივლტოლაჲ მერმისა მისგან რისხვისა?

Mt 12:34

γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, πῶς δύνασθε ἀγαθὰ λαλεῖν πονηροὶ ὄντες; ἐκ γὰρ τοῦ περισσεύματος τῆς καρδίας τὸ στόμα λαλεῖ.

Ծնունդք իժից· զիա՞րդ կարիցէք բարիս խաւսել որ չարքդ էք· քանզի ի յաւելուածո́յ սրտի խաւսի բերան։.։.

  • զիա՞րդ how?
  • կարիցէք pres subj 2pl կարեմ, կարացի to be able
  • չար, -աց bad, wicked
  • խաւսի pres 3sg խաւսիմ, -եցայ to speak
  • յաւելուած, -ոց surplus, increase

12:34 (A-89/A-844)

ႬႠႸႭႡႬႭ ႨႵႤႣႬႤႧႠႬႭ ႥႤႰ ჄႤႪ ႢႤႼႨႴႤႡႨႱ ႩႤႧႨႪႨႱႠ ႱႨႲႷႭჃႠႣ Ⴐ~ ႧႵ~Ⴌ ႭჃႩႤႧႭჃႰႬႨ ႾႠႰႧ Ⴐ~ ႬႠႫႤႲႠႥႨႱႠႢႠႬ ႢႭჃႪႨႱႠ ႮႨႰႨ ႾႨႲႷჃႱ

ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო ვერ ჴელ-გეწიფების [კე]თილისა სიტყოჳად რ(ამეთოჳ) თქ(ოჳე)ნ ოჳკეთოჳრნი ხართ რ(ამეთოჳ) ნამეტავისაგან გოჳლისა პირი ხიტყჳს

  • ჴელ-გ-ე-წიფებ-ი-ს pres 3sg O2 (indir. vb) ჴელ-წიფება to be able
  • უკეთური bad, evil
  • ხ-არ-თ pres 2pl ყოფა to be
  • ნამეტავი excessive, extra
  • პირი mouth
  • ხ-ი-ტყუ-ი-ს pres 3sg სიტყუა to speak

12:34 Adishi

ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვითარ უძლოთ კეთილისა სიტყუად? რამეთუ თქუენ უკეთურნი ხართ, რამეთუ ნამეტავისაგან გულისა პირი იტყჳს.

  • უ-ძლ-ო-თ aor 2pl ძლება to be able
  • იტყჳს as above, only w/o ხ-

12:34 Athonite

ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვითარ ჴელ-გეწიფების კეთილისა სიტყუად, რამეთუ თქუენ უკეთურნი ხართ? რამეთუ ნამეტავისაგან გულისა პირი იტყჳნ.

  • as Adishi, except with the verb ჴელ-გეწიფების as in A-89/A-844

Mt 23:33

ὄφεις, γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν, πῶς φύγητε ἀπὸ τῆς κρίσεως τῆς γεέννης;

Աւձք, ծնունդք իժից զիա՞րդ փախնուցուք ի դատաստանէ գեհենին։.

  • աւձ, -ից snake, serpent
  • փախնուցուք pres subj 2pl փախնում, -խեայ to flee
  • դատաստան, -աց judgement

23:33 (A-89/A-844)

ႫႠႧႠ ႧႵ~ႬႧႠჂ ႢႭჃႤႪႬႭ ႣႠ ႬႠႸႭႡႬႭ ႨႵႤႣႬႤႧႠႬႭ Ⴅ~ႰႫႤ ႢႠႬႾႤႰႬႤႧ ႱႠႸႿႤႪႱႠ ႢႤჀႤႬႨႠჂႱႠႱႠ

თქ(ოჳე)ნთაჲ გოჳელნო და ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო ვ(ითა)რმე განხერნეთ საშჯელსა გეჰენიაჲსასა

  • [თქ(ოჳე)ნთაჲ is a plus, as is the და between გოჳელნო and ნაშობნო]
  • გუელი snake
  • გან-ხ-ე-რ-ნ-ე-თ aor conj 2pl (form also aor) განრომა to survive, be saved
  • საშჯელი judgement

23:33 Adishi

გუელნო, ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვითარმე განერნეთ სასჯელსა გეჰენიაჲსასა?

  • განერნეთ as above, only w/o ხ-

23:33 Athonite
გუელნო და ნაშობნო იქედნეთანო, ვითარმე განერნეთ საშჯელსა მას გეჰენიისასა?

  • [და is a plus, as in A-89/A-844]

The wise king: A passage from Philo’s Questions on Genesis (4.76) in Armenian   1 comment

(Preface: Some time ago I came across the passage below in Armenian. I don’t remember the trail that led me to it, but in any case, it’s an interesting passage for its content and vocabulary and for the fact that both the Greek original and the Armenian survive and can thus be readily compared.)

Most of Philo’s Quaestiones in Genesim survives only in Armenian. Here is part of § 4.76 on Genesis, which is on Gen 23:6. This passage = Chrysippus, Fragmenta Moralia, № 681 (SVF 3, p. 170; available here). The Armenian text was edited and translated into Latin by Aucher/Awgerean, a copy of which from Google Books is accessible at Robert Bedrosian’s site here; unfortunately, some pages were improperly scanned, resulting in an almost surreal stretching of the text, but this particular excerpt (pp. 304-305) is still legible. There is an ET of the Armenian by Marcus, in LCL Philo, suppl. 1, p. 354 (available here).

It happens that the fragmentary Greek evidence for this work of Philo includes part of this text. The Chrysippus fragment cited above is given in SVF in Aucher’s LT. The Greek fragment, of course, would be closer to Chrysippus’ own language. The fragment appears in J. Rendell Harris, Fragments of Philo Judaeus, p. 36 (available here), alongside Aucher’s slightly modified LT.

Fruitful observations would, no doubt, result from a close comparison and dual reading of the Greek and the Armenian version — NB e.g. the Armenian doublet զհմուտն եւ զտեղեակն for τὸν ἐπιστήμονα at the end — yet nothing so involved is given here, only a basic initial meeting with the two texts. So here is the Greek fragment (but nothing for the first sentence), the Armenian text (Aucher, pp. 304-305), and Marcus’s ET, with vocabulary and notes for the Armenian. For comparison and completeness Aucher’s LT follows at the end.

Եւ երկրորդ՝ օրէնս դնէ բնաւորականագոյն. զոր ոմանք յայնցանէ որ միանգամ իմաստասիրականքն եղեն՝ վտարեցին. And, in the second place, (Scripture) lays down a most natural law, which some of those who philosophize have rejected.
  • երկրորդ, -աց second(ly)
  • օրէն, օրինի law, rule, regulation, custom (later in pl.)
  • դնէ pres 3sg դնեմ, եդի to lay, put, establish
  • բնաւորականագոյն natural (Nor baṙgirk’ 498b)
  • ոմն indef. adj./pron.
  • յ-այնցանէ abl. pl. short form of այն that
  • որ միանգամ whoever
  • իմաստասիրական philosophical
  • եղեն aor 3pl եղանիմ to become
  • վտարեցին aor 3pl վտարեմ, -եցի to remove, expel, banish
Τῶν μὲν ἀφρόνων βασιλεὺς οὐδείς, καὶ ἂν τὸ πάσης γῆς καὶ θαλάσσης ἀνάψηται κράτος· μόνος δὲ ὁ ἀστεῖος καὶ θεοφίλης, καὶ ἂν τῶν παρασκευῶν καὶ τῶν χορηγιῶν ἀμοιρῇ, δι᾽ ὧν πολλοὶ κρατύνονται δυναστείας. եւ օրէնքն են, զի յանզգամացն թագաւոր ոչ ոք, թէպէտ զամենայն երկրի եւ զծովու զօրութիւն առցէ. բայց միայն իմաստունն եւ ա՟ծասէրն. եւ եթէ կազմածոցն եւ պատրաստութե՟ցն մասն իցէ, ի ձեռն որոց բազումք զօրանան բռնութեամբ զօրութեամբք։ This law is that no one of the foolish (is) a king, even though he should be master of all the land and sea, but only the wise and God-loving man, even if he is without the equipment and resources through which many obtain power with violence and force.
  • են pres 3pl եմ to be
  • անզգան, -աց knavish, wicked; foolish, mad
  • ոչ ոք no one, nobody
  • թէպէտ even if, although
  • զօրութիւն power, force
  • առցէ aor subj 3sg առնում, առի to take, occupy, carry off
  • միայն only, alone
  • իմաստուն, -տնոց wise, intelligent, prudent, skillful
  • աստուածասէր god-loving, pious
  • կազմած, -ոց apparatus, preparation, equipment
  • պատրաստութիւն preparation, disposition, attention
  • մասն, -սին, -սանց part, portion, share, lot (this and the following word for Greek ἀμοιρῇ)
  • իցէ pres subj 3sg եմ to be
  • ձեռն hand, power, strength, etc. ի ձեռն by, by means of, through
  • զօրանան pres 3pl զօրանամ to grow stronger, reign
  • բռնութիւն violence, tyranny
Ὥσπερ γὰρ τῷ κυβερνητικῆς ἢ ἰατρικῆς ἢ μουσικῆς ἀπείρῳ παρέλκον πρᾶγμα οἴακες καὶ φαρμάκων σύνθεσις καὶ αὐλοὶ καὶ κιθάραι, διότι μηδενὶ τούτων δύναται χρῆσθαι πρὸς ὃ πέφυκε, κυβερνήτῃ δὲ καὶ ἰατρῷ καὶ μουσικῷ λέγοιτο ἂν ἐφαρμόζειν δεόντως· Եւ քանզի որպէս նաւաստականին, կամ բժըշկականին, կամ երաժշտականին անփորձի՝ տարացոյց իրք են, քեղիք, եւ դեղոց եւ սպեղանեաց խառնուածք, եւ փողք, եւ քնարք. վասն զի ոչինչ յայսցանէ ի կիր առնուլ կարէ՝ առ որ բնաւորեցաւն. բայց նաւաստոյն եւ բժշկի եւ երաժշտականի ասասցի յարմարել եւ պատկանել։ For whereas the man ignorant of the art of the pilot or of the physician or of the musician has trouble with the rudders or with the compounding of drugs and ointments or with flutes and lyres, since he is unable to use any of them for its natural purpose, to the pilot, on the other hand, and the physician and the musician they may be said to be fitting and suitable.
  • նաւաստական, -աց sailor (Nor baṙgirk’ 408b)
  • բժըշկական medical
  • երաժշտական musical; musician
  • անփորձ, -ից inexperienced, untried
  • տարացոյց example, model, idea, design, paradigm (Nor baṙgirk’ 855c)
  • իր, -ի, -աց thing, affair
  • քեղի, -ղւոյ, -ղեաց rudder
  • դեղ, -ոց/-ից remedy, medicine
  • սպեղանի poultice, salve, ointment
  • խառնուած, -ոց mixture, compounding
  • փող, -ոց trumpet, horn, reed, pipe
  • քնար, -աց/-ից lyre, harp (cf. Syr. kennārā, Geo. ქნარი)
  • ի կիր առնուլ to put to use
  • կարէ pres 3sg կարեմ, -րացի to be able
  • բնաւոր natural, innate
  • նաւաստ, -տւոյ, տեաց sailor
  • բժիշկ, բժշկի, բժշկաց physician
  • ասասցի aor subj m/p 3sg ասեմ to say
  • յարմարել inf յարնարեմ, -եցի to adapt, accommodate, arrange
  • պատկանել inf պատկանեմ to adapt, adjust, suit, apply
οὕτως, ἐπειδὴ τἐχνη τίς ἐστι βασιλικὴ καὶ τἐχνων ἀρίστη, τὸν μὲν ἀνεπιστήμονα χρήσεως ἀνθρώπων ἰδιώτην νομιστέον, βασιλέα δὲ μόνον τὸν ἐπιστήμονα. Յիրաւի այսպէս. վասն [305] զի արուեստ իմն է թագաւորականն, եւ արուեստից առաքինին. քանզի այն որ անգէտն է եւ անտեղեակ պիտոյից մարդկան, տգէտ համարելի է, եւ գեղջուկ. բայց թագաւոր՝ միայն զհմուտն եւ զտեղեակն։ And this is proper, since there is a certain kingly art, and it is the most noble of the arts. For he who is ignorant and unversed in the needs of men must be considered a layman, while only he (can be considered) a king who is knowing and experienced.
  • յիրաւի justly, deservedly, in truth
  • արուեստ, -ից art, trade, study
  • թագաւորական royal
  • առաքինի, -նւոյ, -նեաց virtuous, honest (also valiant, courageous)
  • անգէտ ignorant, unlearned, stupid
  • անտեղեակ ignorant, unlearned, unskillful
  • պէտք, պիտոյից needs, necessity, use, business
  • մարդիկ, մարդկան people, the human race
  • տգէտ ignorant, unlearned, untaught, illiterate
  • համարելի counted, considered (< համարեմ, -եցի to count, consider, reckon, esteem; on the adjectival form derived from the infinitive, see Meillet, Altarm. Elementarbuch, § 105e)
  • գեղջուկ, -ջկի, -ջկաց peasant, villager, rustic
  • միայն, -ոյ, -ով only, sole
  • հմուտ well-versed, learned, experienced, skillful
  • տեղեակ well informed, skilled, expert

Aucher’s LT of the Armenian:

Secundo vero legem statuit nimis naturalem, quam nonnulli philosophorum sibi conciliarunt. Lex autem est, ut ex insipientibus nullus sit rex, quamvis terrae et maris totam vim subiugarit, sed solus sapiens et dei amans, praeter partes apparatuum armorumque, quibus multi proficiunt per vim violentam. Etenim sicut nauticae vel medicinae vel musicae si quis imperitus sit, pro argumento sunt ei clavus et medicaminum commixtura et tibia et lyra (nullum enim istorum usurpare potest ad usum destinatum, at nauarcho et medico ac musico dicatur omnino convenire) ita profecto, siquidem ars est quaedam regium hoc munus et artifex homo virtute praeditus. Nam qui imperitus est et nescius rerum homines iuvantium, rudis atque rusticus est censendus, rex autem dicendus solus peritus gnarusque.

More bibliography

On Philo in Armenian generally, see R.W. Thomson, Bibliography of Classical Armenian Literature to 1500 AD, pp. 75-76; and “Supplement to A Bibliography of Classical Armenian Literature to AD 1500: Publications 1993–2005″, Le Muséon, 120 (2007), 163–223, here, p. 177. More recently, several important studies appeared in:

Lombardi, Sara Mancini and Paola Pontani, eds. 2011. Studies on the Ancient Armenian Version of Philo’s Works, Studies in Philo of Alexandria 6. Leiden: Brill.

Earlier work by Marcus remains important. These are available at Bedrosian’s site mentioned above.

Marcus, Ralph. 1930. “The Armenian Translation of Philo’s Quaestiones in Genesim et Exodum.Journal of Biblical Literature 49: 61-64.

Marcus, Ralph. 1933. “An Armenian-Greek Index to Philo’s Quaestiones and De Vita Contemplativa.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 53: 251-282.

Marcus, Ralph. 1948. “Notes on the Armenian Text of Philo’s Quaestiones in Genesin, Books I-III.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 7: 111-115.

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 46 (Lot’s wife)   Leave a comment

Lot’s unnamed and ill-fated wife appears in Gen 19:26 and Lk 17:32. We can start with the latter verse, a simple injunction:

Lk 17:32 Ad მოიჴსენეთ ცოლისა ლოთისი.

  • მო-ი-ჴსენ-ე-თ aor impv 2pl მოჴსენება to remember. NB the gen obj.
  • ცოლი wife

And now the report of what happened to her as Lot’s family was fleeing Sodom:

Gen 19:26 Oshki და მიიხილა ცოლმან ლოთისმან მართლუკუნ და იქმნა იგი ძეგლ მარილის.

  • მი-ი-ხილ-ა aor 3sg მიხილვა to look
  • მართლუკუნ back, backwards
  • ძეგლი monument, sculpture
  • მარილი salt

The version of this verse in the Jerusalem Lectionary differs only a little:

და უკუ-მოიხილა ცოლმან ლოთისმან და იქმნა იგი ძეგლ მარილისა.

  • უკუ-მო-ი-ხილ-ა aor 3sg უკუ-მოხილვა to look back

I suppose Dylan’s “She’s an artist, she don’t look back” might be მხატვარი არს, არა უკუ-მოიხილავნ (iter pres, or perh. the aor iter უკუ-მოიხილის). The term მხატვარი painter (cf. ხატი picture, image, and ხატვა to paint, draw) occurs in Gregory of Nyssa’s De opificio hominis (თქუმული კაცისა შესაქმისათჳს) 5 (ed. Abuladze [Tbilisi, 1964], p. 149.24 and 150.4) for Greek γραφεύς and ζώγραφος.

The flight from Sodom, with Lot's wife turned into salt. Vindobonensis Palatinus 1191, f. 10v. 14th century. Source.

The flight from Sodom, with Lot’s wife turned into salt. Vindobonensis Palatinus 1191, f. 10v. 14th century. Source.

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