Some forms of Old Georgian აქუს “to have”   Leave a comment

While reading in the Gospel of Mark in Old Georgian (Adishi) recently, I came across the words არღარა გაქუნს სარწმუნოებაჲ? (Mk 4:40) Since I knew the story and also had the Greek New Testament open beside me, I knew the text there was οὔπω ἔχετε πίστιν. In the verb გაქუნს I recognized ა-ქუ-ს “to have”, a so-called indirect verb, which for this verb has the possessor marked with the series of prefixes that are also used to mark Georgian objects in other instances (O1 მ-, O2 გ-, etc.) and the thing possessed in the nominative case. This Georgian verb is perhaps first retrieved mentally as the present, აქუს “he has”. But what about the -ნ- in our form, particularly the combination -ნ-ს?

First, let’s look at some other forms of the verb. For accessibility and clarity, we will use examples from the Gospels, in this case all from the Adishi text (available at TITUS). The pres has -ქუ-, as in მ-ა-ქუს I have, გ-ა-ქუს you have, etc.

Lk 7:40
Σίμων, ἔχω σοί τι εἰπεῖν
სიმონ, მაქუს რაჲმე სიტყუად შენდა

Mk 9:50
ἔχετε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἅλα
გაქუს თქუენ მარილი

Lk 18:22
πάντα ὅσα ἔχεις πώλησον
ყოველი, რაჲ გაქუს, განყიდე

Jn 19:7
ἡμεῖς νόμον ἔχομεν
ჩუენ შჯული გუაქუს

The impf has -ქუნ-, as in X-ა-ქუნ-დ-ა:

Lk 19:20
ἰδοῦ ἡ μνᾶ σου ἣν εἶχον ἀποκειμένην ἐν σουδαρίῳ
უფალო, აჰა, ვეცხლი შენი, რომელი მაქუნდა დაკრძალული სუდარსა

Jn 9:41
οὐκ ἂν εἴχετε ἁμαρτίαν
ცოდვაჲმცა არა გაქუნდა

Mt 18:25
μὴ ἔχοντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἀποδοῦναι
და ვითარ არარაჲ აქუნდა გარდაჴდად

For the -ნ-, NB also ქონებაჲ “(the fact of) having, possessing” and derivatives (Sarjveladze and Fähnrich, Altgeorgisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch, p. 1279). In addition, when the possessed thing is plural, we have (with third person possessor) ჰ-ქონ-ან, also showing the loss of the version vowel ა-. Kevin Tuite (p.c.) points out a sentence illustrating both forms (singular possessed and plural possessed):

Sinai Mravaltavi, p. 167.35-36 (at TITUS here)

პეტრეს კლიტენი ჰქონან ცათა სასუფეველისანი და ბრძანებაჲ აქუს
Peter has the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and has the command.

Now for some forms in various persons with ა-ქუნ-ს:

Mt 14:17
οὐχ ἔχομεν ὧδε εἰ μὴ πέντε ἄρτους καὶ δύο ἰχθύας
არა გუაქუნს აქა, გარნა ხუთი პური და ორი თევზი

Mt 15:32
οὐχ ἔχουσιν τί φάγωσιν
არაჲ აქუნს, რაჲმცა ჭამეს

Mt 15:34
πόσους ἄρτους ἔχετε;
რაოდენი პური გაქუნს აქა?

Mt 21:26
πάντες γὰρ ὡς προφήτην ἔχουσιν τὸν Ἰωάννην
რამეთუ იოვანე ყოველთა წინაწარმეტყუელად აქუს (variant: აქუნს)

Mt 27:65
ἔχετε κοθστωδίαν
გაქუნს თქუენ დასი

Lk 5:24
ὅτι υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐξουσίαν ἔχει ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας
რამეთუ ჴელმწიფებაჲ აქუნს ძესა კაცისასა ქუეყანასა ზედა მიტევებად ცოდვათა

Lk 12:19
ψυχή, ἔχεις πολλὰ ἀγαθὰ κείμενα εἰς ἔτη πολλά
სულო, გაქუნს ყოველი კეთილი დაუნჯებული მრავალთა წელთაჲ

And finally, our sentence that started this inquiry:

Mk 4:40
οὔπω ἔχετε πίστιν;
არღარა გაქუნს სარწმუნოებაჲ

These all have present meaning and they all translate a Greek present. (მ-/გ-/გუ-)აქუნს would seem to be, then, an allomorph of (მ-/გ-/გუ-)აქუს with the -ნ- of the root kept intact.

(Very many thanks to Kevin Tuite for discussing some of these forms with me.)

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